Intranasal administration of peptide antigens of HIV with mucosal adjuvant CpG ODN coentrapped in microparticles enhances the mucosal and systemic immune responses

Par Bahadur Pun, Ajaz Ahmad Bhat, Teena Mohan, Smita Kulkarni, Ramesh Paranjape, Donthamshetty Nageswara Rao

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The mucosal immune system acts as a first line of defense against infection caused by luminal pathogens. Because HIV is transmitted primarily via mucosal associated tissues, particularly with sexual transmission, understanding antiviral immunity present at these sites is important. As most of the peptide antigens show poor immunogenicity when immunized alone but after incorporating the same peptide antigens along with adjuvant CpG ODN in microparticles has shown enhanced immunogenicity in the murine model. In the present study we have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of two adjuvants, CpG 1826 and CpG 2006 (Class B, Also known as type K) to the four peptide antigens of HIV such as envelope glycoproteins gp41 Leucine Zipper, gp41 fusion domain and gp120-C2 as well as regulatory protein (Nef) in microparticles, exploring nasal route with single immunization schedule. Peptide (s) alone in the microparticles elicited low peptide specific IgG and IgA peak titres in the sera, whereas the inclusion of CpG ODN with peptides in microparticles significantly enhanced peptide specific IgG and IgA peak titres and such responses were sustained for longer durations. Similarly higher SIgA response was achieved in the mucosal washes with CpG encapsulated in microparticles. Such presence of SIgA in washes was further correlated with the presence of secretory component (SC) in the respective washes. Both adjuvants induced excellent peptide specific IgG and IgA immune responses. Thus the overall study highlighted the importance of CpG ODNs as a mucosal adjuvant for weaker peptide antigens and thus can explore for developing peptide based vaccine against HIV. Crown

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)468-477
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Immunopharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2009



  • CpG ODN
  • Microparticles
  • Secretory IgA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

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