Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures

Iman Al-Saleh, Reem Al-Rouqi, Cercilia Angela Obsum, Neptune Shinwari, Abdullah Mashhour, Grisellhi Billedo, Yaser Al-Sarraj, Abdullah Rabbah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project "Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants". The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78. μg/l, 0.976. μg/l and 0.037. μg/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68. μg/l and 1.052. μg/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ≥0.78. μg/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ≥0.976. μg/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ≥0.037. μg/g dry wt. (. p=. 0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ≥65.68. μg/l were positively associated with placenta weight (. p=. 0.041) and thickness (. p=. 0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ≥0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5. min score (. p=. 0.047), birth weight (. p=. 0.034) and placenta thickness (. p=. 0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (. p=. 0.021), while birth weight (. p=. 0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ≥0.008 (. p=. 0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ≥0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (. p=. 0.037) and without (. p=. 0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-90
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume218
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Selenium
Cadmium
Oxidative Stress
Biomarkers
Parturition
Premature Birth
Placenta
Fetal Blood
Birth Weight
Weights and Measures
Serum
Mothers
Principal Component Analysis
Malondialdehyde

Keywords

  • Birth anthropometric measures
  • Cadmium
  • DNA damage
  • Oxidative stress
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Selenium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures. / Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah.

In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 218, No. 1, 2015, p. 66-90.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Al-Saleh, Iman ; Al-Rouqi, Reem ; Obsum, Cercilia Angela ; Shinwari, Neptune ; Mashhour, Abdullah ; Billedo, Grisellhi ; Al-Sarraj, Yaser ; Rabbah, Abdullah. / Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures. In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2015 ; Vol. 218, No. 1. pp. 66-90.
@article{9bc9be235f9441af81fd5cad008df5e5,
title = "Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures",
abstract = "To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project {"}Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants{"}. The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78. μg/l, 0.976. μg/l and 0.037. μg/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68. μg/l and 1.052. μg/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ≥0.78. μg/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ≥0.976. μg/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ≥0.037. μg/g dry wt. (. p=. 0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ≥65.68. μg/l were positively associated with placenta weight (. p=. 0.041) and thickness (. p=. 0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ≥0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5. min score (. p=. 0.047), birth weight (. p=. 0.034) and placenta thickness (. p=. 0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (. p=. 0.021), while birth weight (. p=. 0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ≥0.008 (. p=. 0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ≥0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (. p=. 0.037) and without (. p=. 0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption.",
keywords = "Birth anthropometric measures, Cadmium, DNA damage, Oxidative stress, Saudi Arabia, Selenium",
author = "Iman Al-Saleh and Reem Al-Rouqi and Obsum, {Cercilia Angela} and Neptune Shinwari and Abdullah Mashhour and Grisellhi Billedo and Yaser Al-Sarraj and Abdullah Rabbah",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.001",
language = "English",
volume = "218",
pages = "66--90",
journal = "International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health",
issn = "1438-4639",
publisher = "Urban und Fischer Verlag Jena",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures

AU - Al-Saleh, Iman

AU - Al-Rouqi, Reem

AU - Obsum, Cercilia Angela

AU - Shinwari, Neptune

AU - Mashhour, Abdullah

AU - Billedo, Grisellhi

AU - Al-Sarraj, Yaser

AU - Rabbah, Abdullah

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project "Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants". The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78. μg/l, 0.976. μg/l and 0.037. μg/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68. μg/l and 1.052. μg/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ≥0.78. μg/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ≥0.976. μg/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ≥0.037. μg/g dry wt. (. p=. 0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ≥65.68. μg/l were positively associated with placenta weight (. p=. 0.041) and thickness (. p=. 0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ≥0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5. min score (. p=. 0.047), birth weight (. p=. 0.034) and placenta thickness (. p=. 0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (. p=. 0.021), while birth weight (. p=. 0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ≥0.008 (. p=. 0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ≥0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (. p=. 0.037) and without (. p=. 0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption.

AB - To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project "Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants". The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78. μg/l, 0.976. μg/l and 0.037. μg/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68. μg/l and 1.052. μg/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ≥0.78. μg/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ≥0.976. μg/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ≥0.037. μg/g dry wt. (. p=. 0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ≥65.68. μg/l were positively associated with placenta weight (. p=. 0.041) and thickness (. p=. 0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ≥0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5. min score (. p=. 0.047), birth weight (. p=. 0.034) and placenta thickness (. p=. 0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (. p=. 0.021), while birth weight (. p=. 0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ≥0.008 (. p=. 0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (. p=. 0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ≥0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (. p=. 0.037) and without (. p=. 0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption.

KW - Birth anthropometric measures

KW - Cadmium

KW - DNA damage

KW - Oxidative stress

KW - Saudi Arabia

KW - Selenium

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84940166812&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84940166812&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.001

DO - 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.001

M3 - Article

VL - 218

SP - 66

EP - 90

JO - International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health

JF - International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health

SN - 1438-4639

IS - 1

ER -