Inkjet-printed CZTSSe absorbers and influence of sodium on device performance

Xianzhong Lin, Vinod Madhavan, Jaison Kavalakkatt, Volker Hinrichs, Iver Lauermann, Martha Ch Lux-Steiner, Ahmed Ennaoui, Reiner Klenk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


Inkjet printing is a promising route for thin film deposition due to its low material wastage and potential of high throughput production. In this work, the inkjet printing technique is used for the deposition of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films from Cu-Zn-Sn-S molecular inks. The key step for using the inkjet printing technique is to formulate a stable ink with suitable viscosity. The ink was prepared by dissolving Cu, Sn, and Zn metal salt precursors, thiourea and different amount of NaF (varied from 0M to 1.12M) in dimethyl sulfoxide. NaF was added to verify the influence of sodium (Na) in ink formation and CZTSSe device properties. It was found from the kesterite structure analysis that increasing NaF leads to segregation of a NaCl phase in the resulting CZTSSe films. Cross-sectional morphologies of the kesterite layer as revealed by scanning electron microscopy showed an enhancement from a multi-layered sandwich type to a double-layered structure by adding NaF. The photoelectron conversion efficiencies of solar cells, with a glass/Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/ZnO/AZO/Ni-Al configuration, increased from 1.7% to 6.4% with increasing NaF concentration from 0M to 0.144M and thereafter decreasing at higher NaF concentration (≥ 0.288M).

Original languageEnglish
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2017



  • CZTSSe
  • Inkjet printing
  • Solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Lin, X., Madhavan, V., Kavalakkatt, J., Hinrichs, V., Lauermann, I., Lux-Steiner, M. C., Ennaoui, A., & Klenk, R. (Accepted/In press). Inkjet-printed CZTSSe absorbers and influence of sodium on device performance. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.