Inactivation of RIZ1 gene by promoter hypermethylation is associated with disease progression and resistance to imatinib in Indian chronic myelogenous leukemia patients, first study from India

Imtiyaz Ahmad, Rashid Mir, Mariyam Zuberi, Jamsheed Javid, Prasant Yadav, Shazia Farooq, M. Masroor, Sameer Guru, Sheikh Shahnawaz, P. C. Ray, Ishfaq Ahmad, Tanvir S. Khatlani, Ajaz Ahmad Bhat, Naresh Gupta, Sunita Jetly, Niyaz Ahmad, Alpana Saxena

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Abstract

Background: The epigenetic impact of DNA methylation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is not completely understood. RIZ1 expression and activity are reduced in many cancers. In CML, blastic transformation is associated with loss of heterozygosity in the region where RIZ1 is located. RIZ1 is a PR domain methyltransferase that methylates histone H3 lysine 9, a modification important for transcriptional repression. In CML blast crisis cell lines RIZ1 represses insulin-like growth factor-1 expression and autocrine signaling. Together these observations suggest that RIZ1 may have a role in the chronic phase to blast crisis transition in CML. Methods: To examine whether promoter methylation is involved in the disease development and progression of CML, we investigated promoter methylation status of RIZ1 gene in 100 chronic myeloid leukemia's (CML) patients and 50 controls by MSP method. Results: The RIZ1 methylation was studied in 100 CML patients, 9 were cases were methylation positive cases, six of nine were in blastic phase, 2 in chronic phase and one patient in accelerated phase. It was seen that RIZ1 methylation was increased significantly from early to advanced phase. The higher frequency of RIZ1 methylation was reported in haematologically resistant cases (42% vs 2%) and molecularly resistant cases (16.77% vs 1.92%) than the responders. The higher frequency of RIZ1 methylation was found in CML patients who were treated with interferon initially followed by imatinib treatment. Also RIZ1 hypermethylation was associated with faster disease progression p<0.003 than the non methylated cases. No correlation was found between RIZ1 gene methylation with age, thrombocytopenia, types of bcr/abl transcripts of CML patients. Conclusion: We conclude that epigenetic silencing of RIZ1 gene is associated with CML progression and imatinib resistance. Early detection of RIZ1 methylation could be a predictive marker for imatinib resistance and disease progression in CML.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-51
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cancer Science and Therapy
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Methylation
  • Myelogenous leukemia
  • Resistance
  • RIZ1 gene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Ahmad, I., Mir, R., Zuberi, M., Javid, J., Yadav, P., Farooq, S., Masroor, M., Guru, S., Shahnawaz, S., Ray, P. C., Ahmad, I., Khatlani, T. S., Bhat, A. A., Gupta, N., Jetly, S., Ahmad, N., & Saxena, A. (2013). Inactivation of RIZ1 gene by promoter hypermethylation is associated with disease progression and resistance to imatinib in Indian chronic myelogenous leukemia patients, first study from India. Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy, 5(2), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-5956.1000183