In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

Stefanie M. Greil, Iver Lauermann, Ahmed Ennaoui, Timo Kropp, Kathrin M. Lange, Matthieu Weber, Emad F. Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)


Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-267
Number of pages5
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2010



  • Ambient condition
  • Cd-free buffer layer
  • Chalcopyrite solar cells
  • Soft XAS
  • Time resolved

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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