Implementation of dust emission and chemistry into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and initial application to an Asian dust storm episode

K. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Nenes, Christos Fountoukis

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66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 4.7 is further developed to enhance its capability in simulating the photochemical cycles in the presence of dust particles. The new model treatments implemented in CMAQ v4.7 in this work include two online dust emission schemes (i.e., the Zender and Westphal schemes), nine dust-related heterogeneous reactions, an updated aerosol inorganic thermodynamic module ISORROPIA II with an explicit treatment of crustal species, and the interface between ISORROPIA II and the new dust treatments. The resulting improved CMAQ (referred to as CMAQ-Dust), offline-coupled with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF), is applied to the April 2001 dust storm episode over the trans-Pacific domain to examine the impact of new model treatments and understand associated uncertainties. WRF/CMAQ-Dust produces reasonable spatial distribution of dust emissions and captures the dust outbreak events, with the total dust emissions of ∼111 and 223 Tg when using the Zender scheme with an erodible fraction of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The model system can reproduce well observed meteorological and chemical concentrations, with significant improvements for suspended particulate matter (PM), PM with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm, and aerosol optical depth than the default CMAQ v4.7. The sensitivity studies show that the inclusion of crustal species reduces the concentration of PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) over polluted areas. The heterogeneous chemistry occurring on dust particles acts as a sink for some species (e.g., as a lower limit estimate, reducing O3 by up to 3.8 ppb (∼9%) and SO 2 by up to 0.3 ppb (∼27%)) and as a source for some others (e.g., increasing fine-mode SO 4 2- by up to 1.1 μg mg -3 (∼12%) and PM 2.5 by up to 1.4 μg m -3 (∼3%)) over the domain. The long-range transport of Asian pollutants can enhance the surface concentrations of gases by up to 3% and aerosol species by up to 20% in the Western US.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10209-10237
Number of pages29
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume12
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

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dust storm
air quality
dust
modeling
particulate matter
aerosol
aerodynamics
weather
long range transport
suspended particulate matter
optical depth
thermodynamics
spatial distribution
pollutant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

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title = "Implementation of dust emission and chemistry into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and initial application to an Asian dust storm episode",
abstract = "The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 4.7 is further developed to enhance its capability in simulating the photochemical cycles in the presence of dust particles. The new model treatments implemented in CMAQ v4.7 in this work include two online dust emission schemes (i.e., the Zender and Westphal schemes), nine dust-related heterogeneous reactions, an updated aerosol inorganic thermodynamic module ISORROPIA II with an explicit treatment of crustal species, and the interface between ISORROPIA II and the new dust treatments. The resulting improved CMAQ (referred to as CMAQ-Dust), offline-coupled with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF), is applied to the April 2001 dust storm episode over the trans-Pacific domain to examine the impact of new model treatments and understand associated uncertainties. WRF/CMAQ-Dust produces reasonable spatial distribution of dust emissions and captures the dust outbreak events, with the total dust emissions of ∼111 and 223 Tg when using the Zender scheme with an erodible fraction of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The model system can reproduce well observed meteorological and chemical concentrations, with significant improvements for suspended particulate matter (PM), PM with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm, and aerosol optical depth than the default CMAQ v4.7. The sensitivity studies show that the inclusion of crustal species reduces the concentration of PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) over polluted areas. The heterogeneous chemistry occurring on dust particles acts as a sink for some species (e.g., as a lower limit estimate, reducing O3 by up to 3.8 ppb (∼9{\%}) and SO 2 by up to 0.3 ppb (∼27{\%})) and as a source for some others (e.g., increasing fine-mode SO 4 2- by up to 1.1 μg mg -3 (∼12{\%}) and PM 2.5 by up to 1.4 μg m -3 (∼3{\%})) over the domain. The long-range transport of Asian pollutants can enhance the surface concentrations of gases by up to 3{\%} and aerosol species by up to 20{\%} in the Western US.",
author = "K. Wang and Y. Zhang and A. Nenes and Christos Fountoukis",
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AU - Fountoukis, Christos

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N2 - The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 4.7 is further developed to enhance its capability in simulating the photochemical cycles in the presence of dust particles. The new model treatments implemented in CMAQ v4.7 in this work include two online dust emission schemes (i.e., the Zender and Westphal schemes), nine dust-related heterogeneous reactions, an updated aerosol inorganic thermodynamic module ISORROPIA II with an explicit treatment of crustal species, and the interface between ISORROPIA II and the new dust treatments. The resulting improved CMAQ (referred to as CMAQ-Dust), offline-coupled with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF), is applied to the April 2001 dust storm episode over the trans-Pacific domain to examine the impact of new model treatments and understand associated uncertainties. WRF/CMAQ-Dust produces reasonable spatial distribution of dust emissions and captures the dust outbreak events, with the total dust emissions of ∼111 and 223 Tg when using the Zender scheme with an erodible fraction of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The model system can reproduce well observed meteorological and chemical concentrations, with significant improvements for suspended particulate matter (PM), PM with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm, and aerosol optical depth than the default CMAQ v4.7. The sensitivity studies show that the inclusion of crustal species reduces the concentration of PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) over polluted areas. The heterogeneous chemistry occurring on dust particles acts as a sink for some species (e.g., as a lower limit estimate, reducing O3 by up to 3.8 ppb (∼9%) and SO 2 by up to 0.3 ppb (∼27%)) and as a source for some others (e.g., increasing fine-mode SO 4 2- by up to 1.1 μg mg -3 (∼12%) and PM 2.5 by up to 1.4 μg m -3 (∼3%)) over the domain. The long-range transport of Asian pollutants can enhance the surface concentrations of gases by up to 3% and aerosol species by up to 20% in the Western US.

AB - The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 4.7 is further developed to enhance its capability in simulating the photochemical cycles in the presence of dust particles. The new model treatments implemented in CMAQ v4.7 in this work include two online dust emission schemes (i.e., the Zender and Westphal schemes), nine dust-related heterogeneous reactions, an updated aerosol inorganic thermodynamic module ISORROPIA II with an explicit treatment of crustal species, and the interface between ISORROPIA II and the new dust treatments. The resulting improved CMAQ (referred to as CMAQ-Dust), offline-coupled with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF), is applied to the April 2001 dust storm episode over the trans-Pacific domain to examine the impact of new model treatments and understand associated uncertainties. WRF/CMAQ-Dust produces reasonable spatial distribution of dust emissions and captures the dust outbreak events, with the total dust emissions of ∼111 and 223 Tg when using the Zender scheme with an erodible fraction of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The model system can reproduce well observed meteorological and chemical concentrations, with significant improvements for suspended particulate matter (PM), PM with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm, and aerosol optical depth than the default CMAQ v4.7. The sensitivity studies show that the inclusion of crustal species reduces the concentration of PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) over polluted areas. The heterogeneous chemistry occurring on dust particles acts as a sink for some species (e.g., as a lower limit estimate, reducing O3 by up to 3.8 ppb (∼9%) and SO 2 by up to 0.3 ppb (∼27%)) and as a source for some others (e.g., increasing fine-mode SO 4 2- by up to 1.1 μg mg -3 (∼12%) and PM 2.5 by up to 1.4 μg m -3 (∼3%)) over the domain. The long-range transport of Asian pollutants can enhance the surface concentrations of gases by up to 3% and aerosol species by up to 20% in the Western US.

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