Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells

Marco Orecchioni, Davide Bedognetti, Francesco Sgarrella, Francesco M. Marincola, Alberto Bianco, Lucia G. Delogu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number138
JournalJournal of Translational Medicine
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 May 2014

Fingerprint

Carbon Nanotubes
Graphite
Nanostructures
Nanostructured materials
Immune system
Immune System
Carbon
Lymphocytes
Nanohorns
T-cells
Macrophages
Biocompatibility
Gene expression
Natural Killer Cells
Dendritic Cells
Medicine
Communicable Diseases
Toxicity
Publications
Monocytes

Keywords

  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Cells
  • Diagnosis
  • Graphene
  • Graphene oxide
  • Immune system
  • Nanomedicine
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Orecchioni, M., Bedognetti, D., Sgarrella, F., Marincola, F. M., Bianco, A., & Delogu, L. G. (2014). Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells. Journal of Translational Medicine, 12(1), [138]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-12-138

Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells. / Orecchioni, Marco; Bedognetti, Davide; Sgarrella, Francesco; Marincola, Francesco M.; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia G.

In: Journal of Translational Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 138, 21.05.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Orecchioni, M, Bedognetti, D, Sgarrella, F, Marincola, FM, Bianco, A & Delogu, LG 2014, 'Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells', Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, 138. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-12-138
Orecchioni, Marco ; Bedognetti, Davide ; Sgarrella, Francesco ; Marincola, Francesco M. ; Bianco, Alberto ; Delogu, Lucia G. / Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells. In: Journal of Translational Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
@article{9446abd1c49741f6979cfd9702bafe99,
title = "Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells",
abstract = "It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56{\%}) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30{\%} of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22{\%}) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7{\%}), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6{\%}), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1{\%}). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine.",
keywords = "Carbon nanotubes, Cells, Diagnosis, Graphene, Graphene oxide, Immune system, Nanomedicine, Therapy",
author = "Marco Orecchioni and Davide Bedognetti and Francesco Sgarrella and Marincola, {Francesco M.} and Alberto Bianco and Delogu, {Lucia G.}",
year = "2014",
month = "5",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1186/1479-5876-12-138",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Journal of Translational Medicine",
issn = "1479-5876",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells

AU - Orecchioni, Marco

AU - Bedognetti, Davide

AU - Sgarrella, Francesco

AU - Marincola, Francesco M.

AU - Bianco, Alberto

AU - Delogu, Lucia G.

PY - 2014/5/21

Y1 - 2014/5/21

N2 - It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine.

AB - It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine.

KW - Carbon nanotubes

KW - Cells

KW - Diagnosis

KW - Graphene

KW - Graphene oxide

KW - Immune system

KW - Nanomedicine

KW - Therapy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84903143944&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84903143944&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1479-5876-12-138

DO - 10.1186/1479-5876-12-138

M3 - Review article

VL - 12

JO - Journal of Translational Medicine

JF - Journal of Translational Medicine

SN - 1479-5876

IS - 1

M1 - 138

ER -