End sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) provide highly specific sequence markers in large-scale sequencing projects. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length of >460 bp for a total of 141 Mb covering ~4.7% of the genome. Over 60% of the clones have BAC end sequences (BESs) from both ends representing more than fivefold coverage of the human genome by the paired-end clones. Our quality assessments and sequence analyses indicate that BESs from human BAC libraries developed at The California Institute of Technology (CalTech) and Roswell Park Cancer Institute have similar properties. The analyses have high-lighted differences in insert size for different segments of the CalTech library. Problems with the fidelity of tracking of sequence data back to physical clones have been observed in some subsets of the overall BES dataset. The annotation results of BESs for the contents of available genomic sequences, sequence tagged sites, expressed sequence tags, protein encoding regions, and repeats indicate that this resource will be valuable in many areas of genome research. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
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