How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies?

Jürgen Margraf, Anke Ehlers, Walton T. Roth, Duncan B. Clark, Javaid Sheikh, W. Stewart Agras, C. Barr Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Citations (Scopus)


Psychopharmacological studies usually attempt to eliminate "nonspecific" influences on outcome by double-blind designs. In a randomized, double-blind comparison of alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo, the great majority of panic disorder patients (N = 59) and their physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given. Moreover, physicians could distinguish between the two types of active drugs. Inasmuch as correct rating was possible halfway through treatment, concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind strategy arise.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-187
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1991
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Margraf, J., Ehlers, A., Roth, W. T., Clark, D. B., Sheikh, J., Agras, W. S., & Taylor, C. B. (1991). How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(1), 184-187.