Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery

Alberto Diego-Taboada, Stephen T. Beckett, Stephen Atkin, Grahame Mackenzie

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-96
Number of pages17
JournalPharmaceutics
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pollen
Capsules
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Phenols
Alkalies
Intestinal Mucosa
Vacuum
Dietary Supplements
Spores
Human Body
Cellulose
Solubility
Antioxidants
Pressure
Temperature
Acids
Genes
sporopollenin

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Bioavailability
  • Controlled release
  • Exines
  • High loading
  • Pollen
  • Porous shells
  • Sporopollenin
  • UV protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

Diego-Taboada, A., Beckett, S. T., Atkin, S., & Mackenzie, G. (2014). Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery. Pharmaceutics, 6(1), 80-96. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics6010080

Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery. / Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T.; Atkin, Stephen; Mackenzie, Grahame.

In: Pharmaceutics, Vol. 6, No. 1, 14.03.2014, p. 80-96.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Diego-Taboada, A, Beckett, ST, Atkin, S & Mackenzie, G 2014, 'Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery', Pharmaceutics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 80-96. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics6010080
Diego-Taboada, Alberto ; Beckett, Stephen T. ; Atkin, Stephen ; Mackenzie, Grahame. / Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery. In: Pharmaceutics. 2014 ; Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 80-96.
@article{6c83e43ea3be4376a835d9b9a1d1ce46,
title = "Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery",
abstract = "Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell.",
keywords = "Antioxidant, Bioavailability, Controlled release, Exines, High loading, Pollen, Porous shells, Sporopollenin, UV protection",
author = "Alberto Diego-Taboada and Beckett, {Stephen T.} and Stephen Atkin and Grahame Mackenzie",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
day = "14",
doi = "10.3390/pharmaceutics6010080",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "80--96",
journal = "Pharmaceutics",
issn = "1999-4923",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery

AU - Diego-Taboada, Alberto

AU - Beckett, Stephen T.

AU - Atkin, Stephen

AU - Mackenzie, Grahame

PY - 2014/3/14

Y1 - 2014/3/14

N2 - Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell.

AB - Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell.

KW - Antioxidant

KW - Bioavailability

KW - Controlled release

KW - Exines

KW - High loading

KW - Pollen

KW - Porous shells

KW - Sporopollenin

KW - UV protection

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84897871149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84897871149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/pharmaceutics6010080

DO - 10.3390/pharmaceutics6010080

M3 - Review article

VL - 6

SP - 80

EP - 96

JO - Pharmaceutics

JF - Pharmaceutics

SN - 1999-4923

IS - 1

ER -