The histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC) is a novel regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-uptake, storage and release. Residing in the SR lumen, HRC binds Ca2+ with high capacity but low affinity. In vitro phosphorylation of HRC affects ryanodine affinity of the ryanodine receptor (RyR), suggesting a functional role of HRC on SR Ca2+-release. Indeed, acute HRC overexpression in isolated rodent cardiomyocytes decreases Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release, increases SR Ca2+-load, and impairs contractility. The HRC effects on RyR may be regulated by the Ca2+-sensitivity of its interaction with triadin. However, HRC also affects the SR Ca2+-ATPase, as shown by HRC overexpression in transgenic mouse hearts, which resulted in reduced SR Ca2+-uptake rates, cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. In fact, in vitro generated evidence suggests that HRC directly interacts with SR Ca2+-ATPase2, supporting a dual role of HRC in Ca2+-homeostasis: regulation of both SR Ca2+-uptake and Ca2+-release. Furthermore, HRC plays an important role in myocyte differentiation and in antiapoptotic cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion induced cardiac injury. Interestingly, HRC has been linked with familiar cardiac conduction disease and an HRC polymorphism was shown to associate with malignant ventricular arrhythmias in the background of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This review summarizes studies, which have established the critical role of HRC in Ca2+-homeostasis, suggesting its importance in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology.
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine