High-efficiency Cd-free CIGSS thin-film solar cells with solution grown zinc compound buffer layers

A. Ennaoui, S. Siebentritt, M. Ch Lux-Steiner, W. Riedl, F. Karg

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Zn-compounds Zn(X,OH) (X = S,Se) buffer layers have been deposited by chemical bath (CBD) process on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSS) with the aim of developing Cd-free CIGSS-based devices. The films are produced in alkaline aqueous solution containing ZnSO4, ammonia NH3 and XC(NH2)2. Optimum deposition conditions were established. The temperature (Tsub) of the chemical bath is found to be critical for the device quality. The thickness and good surface coverage were controlled by XPS-UPS photoemission spectroscopy. SEM study showed that the growth of ZnSe nuclei on CIGSS proceeds in lateral direction. Once the surface is covered the growth takes place in vertical direction. The ZnSe clusters grow in size and their elongated shapes cover the CIGSS surface. High efficiency of over 13% was obtained for both CIGSS/Zn(S,OH) and CIGSS/Zn(Se,OH)-based solar cells. Solar cells with CIGSS/Zn(Se,OH)x/ZnO/MgF2 structure show an active area efficiency up to 15.7%. Using Zn(Se,OH) buffer layer, efficiency of 11.7% was achieved with a 20 cm2 aperture-area monolithic minimodule.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2001


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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