Heterostructural TiO2/Ti3C2Tx (MXene) for photocatalytic degradation of antiepileptic drug carbamazepine

Asif Shahzad, Kashif Rasool, Mohsin Nawaz, Waheed Miran, Jiseon Jang, Mokrema Moztahida, Khaled Mahmoud, Dae Sung Lee

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45 Citations (Scopus)


A simple hydrothermal treatment process was used for the fabrication of a Ti3C2Tx (MXene) nanosheet-based hybrid photocatalyst. The chemical composition of the MXene and its derivatives (nanosize {0 0 1} facets of TiO2 in Ti3C2Tx (001-T/MX)), as well as the structural properties and morphology of the as-prepared photocatalyst, were well characterised. The heterostructure of the as-prepared photocatalyst was obtained by controlled oxidation action via the Schottky junction formed between TiO2-MXene interfaces. The adsorption/photocatalytic degradation abilities of the pristine MXene and the as-synthesised 001-T/MX nanocomposite for carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated. The determined Kapp value of CBZ under ultraviolet light was 0.0304 min−1, higher than that under natural solar light, and the degradation capacity was strongly controlled under acidic conditions (pH 3.0–5.0). During the photocatalytic degradation, [rad]OH and [rad]O2 attacked the CBZ molecule; detailed degradation pathways were proposed accordingly. The novel heterojunction 001-T/MX exhibited excellent applicability for CBZ decomposition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)748-755
Number of pages8
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018



  • Heterostructure
  • Photocatalytic degradation
  • TiCT MXene
  • {0 0 1} Facets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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