GSTM1 polymorphisms modify the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognitive functioning in preschoolers

Eva Morales, Jordi Sunyer, Jordi Julvez, Francesc Castro-Giner, Xavier P. Estivill, Maties Torrent, Rafael De Cid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with cognitive deficits in children. Parental factors are proposed as an explanatory. We studied the influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the cognition effects induced by active maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods: Children (n = 384) from a prospective population-based birth cohort were assessed at 4 years. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MCSA) was administrated. Maternal smoking was measured by questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for null alleles from GSTM1 and GSTT1. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and MCSA outcomes by GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (reporting, yes) was inversely associated with global cognitive score among children having null allele for GSTM1 (β = -4.73, 95% CI -9.45 to -0.02); but not among children with present allele (β= -1.04, 95% CI -7.88 to 5.81) (P for interaction 0.089). The interaction remained after adjusting by post-natal maternal smoking (P = 0.081). The effect was stronger for perceptual-performance (β = -3.68, 95% CI -8.39 to 1.03; P for interaction 0.087), quantitative (β = -7.00, 95% CI -17.39 to 3.39; P for interaction 0.048), verbal (β = -3.63, 95% CI -8.43 to 1.17; P for interaction 0.264) and executive function (β = -4.87, 95% CI -9.55 to -0.20; P for interaction 0.127). No interaction was found for GSTT1. Conclusions: GSTM1 deficiency increases the adverse effects of active maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognition in preschoolers, suggesting a biological interaction between child metabolic genes and tobacco smoke components in detoxification process during foetal neurodevelopment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)690-697
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Volume38
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

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Smoking
Mothers
Pregnancy
Aptitude
Alleles
Cognition
Linear Models
Executive Function
Smoke
Tobacco
Genotype
Parturition
Population
Genes

Keywords

  • Children
  • Cognitive functioning
  • Gene-environmental interaction
  • Glutathione S-transferase
  • Maternal smoking habits
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Polymorphism
  • Smoking during pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

GSTM1 polymorphisms modify the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognitive functioning in preschoolers. / Morales, Eva; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Estivill, Xavier P.; Torrent, Maties; De Cid, Rafael.

In: International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2009, p. 690-697.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Morales, Eva ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Julvez, Jordi ; Castro-Giner, Francesc ; Estivill, Xavier P. ; Torrent, Maties ; De Cid, Rafael. / GSTM1 polymorphisms modify the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognitive functioning in preschoolers. In: International Journal of Epidemiology. 2009 ; Vol. 38, No. 3. pp. 690-697.
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abstract = "Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with cognitive deficits in children. Parental factors are proposed as an explanatory. We studied the influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the cognition effects induced by active maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods: Children (n = 384) from a prospective population-based birth cohort were assessed at 4 years. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MCSA) was administrated. Maternal smoking was measured by questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for null alleles from GSTM1 and GSTT1. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and MCSA outcomes by GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (reporting, yes) was inversely associated with global cognitive score among children having null allele for GSTM1 (β = -4.73, 95{\%} CI -9.45 to -0.02); but not among children with present allele (β= -1.04, 95{\%} CI -7.88 to 5.81) (P for interaction 0.089). The interaction remained after adjusting by post-natal maternal smoking (P = 0.081). The effect was stronger for perceptual-performance (β = -3.68, 95{\%} CI -8.39 to 1.03; P for interaction 0.087), quantitative (β = -7.00, 95{\%} CI -17.39 to 3.39; P for interaction 0.048), verbal (β = -3.63, 95{\%} CI -8.43 to 1.17; P for interaction 0.264) and executive function (β = -4.87, 95{\%} CI -9.55 to -0.20; P for interaction 0.127). No interaction was found for GSTT1. Conclusions: GSTM1 deficiency increases the adverse effects of active maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognition in preschoolers, suggesting a biological interaction between child metabolic genes and tobacco smoke components in detoxification process during foetal neurodevelopment.",
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T1 - GSTM1 polymorphisms modify the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognitive functioning in preschoolers

AU - Morales, Eva

AU - Sunyer, Jordi

AU - Julvez, Jordi

AU - Castro-Giner, Francesc

AU - Estivill, Xavier P.

AU - Torrent, Maties

AU - De Cid, Rafael

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with cognitive deficits in children. Parental factors are proposed as an explanatory. We studied the influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the cognition effects induced by active maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods: Children (n = 384) from a prospective population-based birth cohort were assessed at 4 years. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MCSA) was administrated. Maternal smoking was measured by questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for null alleles from GSTM1 and GSTT1. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and MCSA outcomes by GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (reporting, yes) was inversely associated with global cognitive score among children having null allele for GSTM1 (β = -4.73, 95% CI -9.45 to -0.02); but not among children with present allele (β= -1.04, 95% CI -7.88 to 5.81) (P for interaction 0.089). The interaction remained after adjusting by post-natal maternal smoking (P = 0.081). The effect was stronger for perceptual-performance (β = -3.68, 95% CI -8.39 to 1.03; P for interaction 0.087), quantitative (β = -7.00, 95% CI -17.39 to 3.39; P for interaction 0.048), verbal (β = -3.63, 95% CI -8.43 to 1.17; P for interaction 0.264) and executive function (β = -4.87, 95% CI -9.55 to -0.20; P for interaction 0.127). No interaction was found for GSTT1. Conclusions: GSTM1 deficiency increases the adverse effects of active maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognition in preschoolers, suggesting a biological interaction between child metabolic genes and tobacco smoke components in detoxification process during foetal neurodevelopment.

AB - Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with cognitive deficits in children. Parental factors are proposed as an explanatory. We studied the influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the cognition effects induced by active maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods: Children (n = 384) from a prospective population-based birth cohort were assessed at 4 years. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MCSA) was administrated. Maternal smoking was measured by questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for null alleles from GSTM1 and GSTT1. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and MCSA outcomes by GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (reporting, yes) was inversely associated with global cognitive score among children having null allele for GSTM1 (β = -4.73, 95% CI -9.45 to -0.02); but not among children with present allele (β= -1.04, 95% CI -7.88 to 5.81) (P for interaction 0.089). The interaction remained after adjusting by post-natal maternal smoking (P = 0.081). The effect was stronger for perceptual-performance (β = -3.68, 95% CI -8.39 to 1.03; P for interaction 0.087), quantitative (β = -7.00, 95% CI -17.39 to 3.39; P for interaction 0.048), verbal (β = -3.63, 95% CI -8.43 to 1.17; P for interaction 0.264) and executive function (β = -4.87, 95% CI -9.55 to -0.20; P for interaction 0.127). No interaction was found for GSTT1. Conclusions: GSTM1 deficiency increases the adverse effects of active maternal smoking during pregnancy on cognition in preschoolers, suggesting a biological interaction between child metabolic genes and tobacco smoke components in detoxification process during foetal neurodevelopment.

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KW - Gene-environmental interaction

KW - Glutathione S-transferase

KW - Maternal smoking habits

KW - Neurodevelopment

KW - Polymorphism

KW - Smoking during pregnancy

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