Growth of dislocation clusters during directional solidification of multicrystalline silicon ingots

B. Ryningen, G. Stokkan, M. Kivambe, T. Ervik, O. Lohne

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Highly detrimental dislocation clusters are frequently observed in lab-scale as well as industrially produced multicrystalline silicon ingots for solar cell applications. This paper presents an investigation of dislocation clusters and how they develop over the whole height of a pilot-scale ingot. A 12-kg ingot, cast in a pilot-scale directional solidification furnace using a standard slip cast silica crucible and standard coating containing silicon nitride powder, was studied with respect to dislocation clusters. Dislocation clusters originating from grain boundaries were identified and followed from an early stage to the top of the ingot. One possible model for growth and multiplication of the dislocations in the clusters during solidification where slip on the {11̄0}〈1 1 0〉 system must be allowed is described in detail. Another possible mechanism is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7703-7710
Number of pages8
JournalActa Materialia
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011



  • Crystal growth
  • Directional solidification
  • Dislocation structure
  • Dislocations
  • Silicon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys

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