Friction Stir Welding of Low-Carbon AISI 1006 Steel: Room and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties

Vasanth C. Shunmugasamy, Bilal Mansoor, Georges Ayoub, Ramsey Hamade

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Friction stir welding (FSW) is an ecologically benign solid-state joining process. In this work, FSW of low-carbon AISI 1006 steel was carried out to study the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resulting joints at both room temperature (RT) and 200 °C. In the parameter space investigated here, a rotational tool speed and translation feed combination of 1200 rpm and 60 mm/min produced a defect-free weld with balanced mechanical properties and a superior Vickers microhardness profile compared to all other conditions and to base metal (BM). At faster translation feeds (100 and 150 mm/min), wormhole defects were observed in the weld microstructure and were attributed to higher strain rate experienced by the weld zone. Under tensile loading, welded material exhibited yield strength that was up to 86 and 91% of the BM at RT and 200 °C, respectively. On the other hand, tensile strength of welded material was nearly similar to that of the base metal at both RT and 200 °C. However, at both temperatures the tensile ductility of the welded joints was observed to be significantly lower than the BM. Annealing of the 1200 rpm and 60 mm/min FSW specimen resulted in tensile strength of 102% compared to base material and 47% increase in the strain at failure compared to the as-welded specimen. The Charpy impact values revealed up to 62 and 53% increase in the specific impact energy for the 1200 rpm and 60 mm/min welded joints as compared with the BM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1673-1684
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Materials Engineering and Performance
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018



  • friction stir welding
  • low-carbon steel
  • mechanical properties
  • microstructure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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