Evolution of the color-magnitude relation in high-redshift clusters

blue early-type galaxies and red pairs in RDCS J0910+5422

S. Mei, J. P. Blakeslee, S. A. Stanford, B. P. Holden, P. Rosati, V. Sirazzullo, N. Homeier, M. Postman, M. Franx, A. Rettura, H. Ford, G. D. Illingworth, S. Eitori, R. J. Bouwens, R. Demarco, A. R. Martel, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, P. Eisenhardt, D. R. Ardila & 26 others F. Bartko, N. Benítez, L. D. Bradley, T. J. Broadhurst, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, E. S. Cheng, N. J G Cross, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, T. Goto, C. Gronwall, L. Infante, R. A. Kimble, J. E. Krist, M. P. Lesser, F. Menanteau, G. R. Meurer, G. K. Miley, V. Motta, M. Sirianni, W. B. Sparks, H. D. Tran, Zlatan Tsvetanov, R. L. White, W. Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The color-magnitude relation has been determined for the RDCS J0910+5422 cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 1.106. Cluster members were selected from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS) images, combined with ground-based near-IR imaging and optical spectroscopy. The observed early-type color-magnitude relation (CMR) in i775 - z 850 versus z850 shows an intrinsic scatter in color of 0.060 ± 0.009 mag, within 1′ from the cluster X-ray emission center. Both the elliptical and the S0 galaxies show small scatter about the CMR of 0.042 ± 0.010 and 0.044 ± 0.020 mag, respectively. From the scatter about the CMR, a mean luminosity-weighted age t̄ > 3.3 Gyr (zf ≈ 3) is derived for the elliptical galaxies, assuming a simple stellar population modeling (single-burst solar metallicity). Strikingly, the S0 galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 are systematically bluer in i775 - z850, by 0.07 ± 0.02 mag, than the ellipticals. The ellipticity distribution as a function of color indicates that the face-on S0s in this particular cluster have likely been classified as elliptical. Thus, if anything, the offset in color between the elliptical and S0 populations may be even more significant. The color offset between S0 and E galaxies corresponds to an age difference of ≈1 Gyr for a single-burst solar-metallicity model. A solar-metallicity model with an exponential decay in star formation will reproduce the offset for an age of 3.5 Gyr; i.e., the S0s have evolved gradually from star-forming progenitors. The early-type population in this cluster appears to be still forming. The blue early-type disk galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 likely represent the direct progenitors of the more evolved S0s that follow the same red sequence as elliptical galaxies in other clusters. Thirteen red galaxy pairs are observed, and the galaxies associated in pairs constitute ∼40% of the CMR galaxies in this cluster.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-94
Number of pages14
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume639
Issue number1 I
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

galaxies
color
metallicity
elliptical galaxies
bursts
population modeling
population type
disk galaxies
ellipticity
Hubble Space Telescope
star formation
spectroscopy
cameras
luminosity
stars
decay
x rays

Keywords

  • Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
  • Galaxies: evolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Mei, S., Blakeslee, J. P., Stanford, S. A., Holden, B. P., Rosati, P., Sirazzullo, V., ... Zheng, W. (2006). Evolution of the color-magnitude relation in high-redshift clusters: blue early-type galaxies and red pairs in RDCS J0910+5422. Astrophysical Journal, 639(1 I), 81-94. https://doi.org/10.1086/499259

Evolution of the color-magnitude relation in high-redshift clusters : blue early-type galaxies and red pairs in RDCS J0910+5422. / Mei, S.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Rosati, P.; Sirazzullo, V.; Homeier, N.; Postman, M.; Franx, M.; Rettura, A.; Ford, H.; Illingworth, G. D.; Eitori, S.; Bouwens, R. J.; Demarco, R.; Martel, A. R.; Clampin, M.; Hartig, G. F.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Benítez, N.; Bradley, L. D.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J G; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; Goto, T.; Gronwall, C.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Menanteau, F.; Meurer, G. R.; Miley, G. K.; Motta, V.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 639, No. 1 I, 01.03.2006, p. 81-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mei, S, Blakeslee, JP, Stanford, SA, Holden, BP, Rosati, P, Sirazzullo, V, Homeier, N, Postman, M, Franx, M, Rettura, A, Ford, H, Illingworth, GD, Eitori, S, Bouwens, RJ, Demarco, R, Martel, AR, Clampin, M, Hartig, GF, Eisenhardt, P, Ardila, DR, Bartko, F, Benítez, N, Bradley, LD, Broadhurst, TJ, Brown, RA, Burrows, CJ, Cheng, ES, Cross, NJG, Feldman, PD, Golimowski, DA, Goto, T, Gronwall, C, Infante, L, Kimble, RA, Krist, JE, Lesser, MP, Menanteau, F, Meurer, GR, Miley, GK, Motta, V, Sirianni, M, Sparks, WB, Tran, HD, Tsvetanov, Z, White, RL & Zheng, W 2006, 'Evolution of the color-magnitude relation in high-redshift clusters: blue early-type galaxies and red pairs in RDCS J0910+5422', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 639, no. 1 I, pp. 81-94. https://doi.org/10.1086/499259
Mei, S. ; Blakeslee, J. P. ; Stanford, S. A. ; Holden, B. P. ; Rosati, P. ; Sirazzullo, V. ; Homeier, N. ; Postman, M. ; Franx, M. ; Rettura, A. ; Ford, H. ; Illingworth, G. D. ; Eitori, S. ; Bouwens, R. J. ; Demarco, R. ; Martel, A. R. ; Clampin, M. ; Hartig, G. F. ; Eisenhardt, P. ; Ardila, D. R. ; Bartko, F. ; Benítez, N. ; Bradley, L. D. ; Broadhurst, T. J. ; Brown, R. A. ; Burrows, C. J. ; Cheng, E. S. ; Cross, N. J G ; Feldman, P. D. ; Golimowski, D. A. ; Goto, T. ; Gronwall, C. ; Infante, L. ; Kimble, R. A. ; Krist, J. E. ; Lesser, M. P. ; Menanteau, F. ; Meurer, G. R. ; Miley, G. K. ; Motta, V. ; Sirianni, M. ; Sparks, W. B. ; Tran, H. D. ; Tsvetanov, Zlatan ; White, R. L. ; Zheng, W. / Evolution of the color-magnitude relation in high-redshift clusters : blue early-type galaxies and red pairs in RDCS J0910+5422. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 639, No. 1 I. pp. 81-94.
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abstract = "The color-magnitude relation has been determined for the RDCS J0910+5422 cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 1.106. Cluster members were selected from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS) images, combined with ground-based near-IR imaging and optical spectroscopy. The observed early-type color-magnitude relation (CMR) in i775 - z 850 versus z850 shows an intrinsic scatter in color of 0.060 ± 0.009 mag, within 1′ from the cluster X-ray emission center. Both the elliptical and the S0 galaxies show small scatter about the CMR of 0.042 ± 0.010 and 0.044 ± 0.020 mag, respectively. From the scatter about the CMR, a mean luminosity-weighted age t̄ > 3.3 Gyr (zf ≈ 3) is derived for the elliptical galaxies, assuming a simple stellar population modeling (single-burst solar metallicity). Strikingly, the S0 galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 are systematically bluer in i775 - z850, by 0.07 ± 0.02 mag, than the ellipticals. The ellipticity distribution as a function of color indicates that the face-on S0s in this particular cluster have likely been classified as elliptical. Thus, if anything, the offset in color between the elliptical and S0 populations may be even more significant. The color offset between S0 and E galaxies corresponds to an age difference of ≈1 Gyr for a single-burst solar-metallicity model. A solar-metallicity model with an exponential decay in star formation will reproduce the offset for an age of 3.5 Gyr; i.e., the S0s have evolved gradually from star-forming progenitors. The early-type population in this cluster appears to be still forming. The blue early-type disk galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 likely represent the direct progenitors of the more evolved S0s that follow the same red sequence as elliptical galaxies in other clusters. Thirteen red galaxy pairs are observed, and the galaxies associated in pairs constitute ∼40{\%} of the CMR galaxies in this cluster.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Evolution of the color-magnitude relation in high-redshift clusters

T2 - blue early-type galaxies and red pairs in RDCS J0910+5422

AU - Mei, S.

AU - Blakeslee, J. P.

AU - Stanford, S. A.

AU - Holden, B. P.

AU - Rosati, P.

AU - Sirazzullo, V.

AU - Homeier, N.

AU - Postman, M.

AU - Franx, M.

AU - Rettura, A.

AU - Ford, H.

AU - Illingworth, G. D.

AU - Eitori, S.

AU - Bouwens, R. J.

AU - Demarco, R.

AU - Martel, A. R.

AU - Clampin, M.

AU - Hartig, G. F.

AU - Eisenhardt, P.

AU - Ardila, D. R.

AU - Bartko, F.

AU - Benítez, N.

AU - Bradley, L. D.

AU - Broadhurst, T. J.

AU - Brown, R. A.

AU - Burrows, C. J.

AU - Cheng, E. S.

AU - Cross, N. J G

AU - Feldman, P. D.

AU - Golimowski, D. A.

AU - Goto, T.

AU - Gronwall, C.

AU - Infante, L.

AU - Kimble, R. A.

AU - Krist, J. E.

AU - Lesser, M. P.

AU - Menanteau, F.

AU - Meurer, G. R.

AU - Miley, G. K.

AU - Motta, V.

AU - Sirianni, M.

AU - Sparks, W. B.

AU - Tran, H. D.

AU - Tsvetanov, Zlatan

AU - White, R. L.

AU - Zheng, W.

PY - 2006/3/1

Y1 - 2006/3/1

N2 - The color-magnitude relation has been determined for the RDCS J0910+5422 cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 1.106. Cluster members were selected from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS) images, combined with ground-based near-IR imaging and optical spectroscopy. The observed early-type color-magnitude relation (CMR) in i775 - z 850 versus z850 shows an intrinsic scatter in color of 0.060 ± 0.009 mag, within 1′ from the cluster X-ray emission center. Both the elliptical and the S0 galaxies show small scatter about the CMR of 0.042 ± 0.010 and 0.044 ± 0.020 mag, respectively. From the scatter about the CMR, a mean luminosity-weighted age t̄ > 3.3 Gyr (zf ≈ 3) is derived for the elliptical galaxies, assuming a simple stellar population modeling (single-burst solar metallicity). Strikingly, the S0 galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 are systematically bluer in i775 - z850, by 0.07 ± 0.02 mag, than the ellipticals. The ellipticity distribution as a function of color indicates that the face-on S0s in this particular cluster have likely been classified as elliptical. Thus, if anything, the offset in color between the elliptical and S0 populations may be even more significant. The color offset between S0 and E galaxies corresponds to an age difference of ≈1 Gyr for a single-burst solar-metallicity model. A solar-metallicity model with an exponential decay in star formation will reproduce the offset for an age of 3.5 Gyr; i.e., the S0s have evolved gradually from star-forming progenitors. The early-type population in this cluster appears to be still forming. The blue early-type disk galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 likely represent the direct progenitors of the more evolved S0s that follow the same red sequence as elliptical galaxies in other clusters. Thirteen red galaxy pairs are observed, and the galaxies associated in pairs constitute ∼40% of the CMR galaxies in this cluster.

AB - The color-magnitude relation has been determined for the RDCS J0910+5422 cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 1.106. Cluster members were selected from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS) images, combined with ground-based near-IR imaging and optical spectroscopy. The observed early-type color-magnitude relation (CMR) in i775 - z 850 versus z850 shows an intrinsic scatter in color of 0.060 ± 0.009 mag, within 1′ from the cluster X-ray emission center. Both the elliptical and the S0 galaxies show small scatter about the CMR of 0.042 ± 0.010 and 0.044 ± 0.020 mag, respectively. From the scatter about the CMR, a mean luminosity-weighted age t̄ > 3.3 Gyr (zf ≈ 3) is derived for the elliptical galaxies, assuming a simple stellar population modeling (single-burst solar metallicity). Strikingly, the S0 galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 are systematically bluer in i775 - z850, by 0.07 ± 0.02 mag, than the ellipticals. The ellipticity distribution as a function of color indicates that the face-on S0s in this particular cluster have likely been classified as elliptical. Thus, if anything, the offset in color between the elliptical and S0 populations may be even more significant. The color offset between S0 and E galaxies corresponds to an age difference of ≈1 Gyr for a single-burst solar-metallicity model. A solar-metallicity model with an exponential decay in star formation will reproduce the offset for an age of 3.5 Gyr; i.e., the S0s have evolved gradually from star-forming progenitors. The early-type population in this cluster appears to be still forming. The blue early-type disk galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 likely represent the direct progenitors of the more evolved S0s that follow the same red sequence as elliptical galaxies in other clusters. Thirteen red galaxy pairs are observed, and the galaxies associated in pairs constitute ∼40% of the CMR galaxies in this cluster.

KW - Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD

KW - Galaxies: evolution

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