Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Despite its importance, there are significant challenges in the quantitative evaluation of its contribution to airborne concentrations. In order to propose effective mitigation scenarios, the proportions of PM traffic emissions, whether they are exhaust or non-exhaust emissions, should be evaluated for any given geographical location. In this work, we report on the first study to evaluate particulate matter emissions from all registered heavy duty diesel vehicles in Qatar. The study was applied to an active traffic zone in urban Doha. Dust samples were collected and characterized for their shape and size distribution. It was found that the particle size ranged from few to 600 μm with the dominance of small size fraction (less than 100 μm). In-situ elemental composition analysis was conducted for side and main roads traffic dust, and compared with non-traffic PM. The results were used for the evaluation of the enrichment factor and preliminary source apportionment. The enrichment factor of anthropogenic elements amounted to 350. The traffic source based on sulfur elemental fingerprint was almost 5 times higher in main roads compared with the samples from non-traffic locations. Moreover, PM exhaust and non-exhaust emissions (tyre wear, brake wear and road dust resuspension) were evaluated. It was found that the majority of the dust was generated from tyre wear with 33% followed by road dust resuspension (31%), brake wear (19%) and then exhaust emissions with 17%. The low contribution of exhaust PM10 emissions was due to the fact that the majority of the registered vehicle models were recently made and equipped with efficient exhaust PM reduction technologies. Implication: This study reports on the first results related to the evaluation of PM emission from all registered diesel heavy duty vehicles in Qatar. In-situ XRF elemental analysis from main, side roads as well as non-traffic dust samples was conducted. Several characterization techniques were implemented and the results show that the majority of the dust was generated from tyre wear, followed by road dust resuspension and then brake wear; whereas exhaust emissions were tremendously reduced since the majority of the registered vehicle models were recently made and equipped with efficient exhaust PM reduction technologies. This implies that policy makers should place stringent measures on old vehicle license renewals and encourage the use of metro and public transportation.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2020|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law