Enhanced bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid from fish oil after encapsulation within plant spore exines as microcapsules

Ammar Wakil, Grahame MacKenzie, Alberto Diego-Taboada, J. Gordon Bell, Stephen Atkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)


Benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be enhanced by raising their bioavailability through microencapsulation. Pollen can be emptied to form hollow shells, known as exines, and then used to encapsulate material, such as oils in a dry powder form. Six healthy volunteers ingested 4.6 g of fish oil containing 20% EPA in the form of ethyl ester first alone and then as 1:1 microencapsulated powder of exines and fish oil. Serum bioavailability of EPA was measured by area under curve (AUC0-24). The mean AUC 0-24 of EPA from ethyl ester with exine (M = 19.7, SD = 4.3) was significantly higher than ethyl ester without exines (M = 2, SD = 1.4, p < 0.01).The bioavailability of EPA is enhanced by encapsulation by pollen exines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)645-649
Number of pages5
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010
Externally publishedYes



  • Bioavailability
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Exines
  • Microencapsulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Medicine(all)

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