Energy efficient multi-effect distillation powered by a solar linear Fresnel collector

Mohamed Alhaj, Abdelnasser Aboukhlewa, Sami G. Al-Ghamdi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Solar-driven desalination is a potential solution to the problem of freshwater scarcity in many parts of the world. However, this technology requires considerable efforts to overcome a number of technical challenges such as high-energy consumption, intermittency of solar radiation, and high-water consumption. This paper proposes an optimized multi-effect distillation (MED) process driven by steam at 70 °C and 0.3 bar, which is provided by a linear Fresnel collector. The aim of the proposed integrated system is to reduce the equivalent mechanical energy of the MED process, and utilize the most cost-effective storage system. Moreover, we incorporated an air-cooled condenser instead of a water-cooled condenser, to reduce the water cooling facilities. A computer model was developed using the Engineering Equation Solver tool, to solve the mass and energy balance equations of the integrated system (under different operating conditions). Under the operating conditions of Qatar, the simulation results showed that 1 m2 of solar linear Fresnel collector produces 8.6 m3 of freshwater per year. The equivalent mechanical energy of the optimized MED desalination plant is 8 kWh/m3, which is 59% lower than that of existing commercial MED facilities with thermal vapor compression (19 kWh/m3). This significant reduction in equivalent energy consumption would reduce the required solar field size by 25%. This study also showed that using a water storage system (instead of thermal energy storage) results in a lower total system capital cost. Furthermore, by integrating an air-cooled condenser, the overall plant water consumption reduced by 2 m3 of sea water per m3 of feed water. The performance of the air-cooled condenser can vary by as much as 300% due to fluctuations in dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)576-586
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Volume171
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018

Fingerprint

Distillation
Water
Desalination
Energy utilization
Air
Cooling water
Energy balance
Solar radiation
Thermal energy
Energy storage
Costs
Atmospheric humidity
Steam
Vapors
Temperature

Keywords

  • Air-cooled condenser
  • Linear Fresnel collector (LFC)
  • Multi-effect distillation (MED)
  • Solar desalination
  • Thermal vapor compression (TVC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

Energy efficient multi-effect distillation powered by a solar linear Fresnel collector. / Alhaj, Mohamed; Aboukhlewa, Abdelnasser; Al-Ghamdi, Sami G.

In: Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 171, 01.09.2018, p. 576-586.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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