This paper investigates the energy efficiency (EE) in multiple relay-aided OFDM systems, where decode-and-forward (DF) relay beamforming is employed to help the information transmission. In order to explore the system performance behavior with user fairness for such a system, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the EE by jointly considering multiple factors, i.e., the transmission mode selection (DF relay beamforming or direct-link transmission), the helping relay set selection, the subcarrier assignment and the power allocation at the source and relays on subcarriers, under nonlinear proportional rate fairness constraints, where both transmit power consumption and linearly rate-dependent circuit power consumption are taken into account. To solve the nonconvex optimization problem, we propose a low-complexity scheme to approximate it. Simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness. The effects of the circuit power consumption on system performance is also studied and it is observed that with either the constant or the linearly rate-dependent circuit power consumption, system EE grows with the increment of system average channel-to-noise ratio (CNR), but the growth rates show different behaviors. For the constant circuit power consumption, system EE increasing rate is an increasing function of the average CNR, while for the linearly rate-dependent one, system EE increasing rate is a decreasing function of the average CNR. This observation is very important, which indicates that by deducing the circuit dynamic power consumption per unit data rate, system EE can be greatly enhanced. Besides, we also discuss the effects of the number of users and subcarriers on the system EE performance.
- Energy efficiency
- rate fairness
- relay beamforming
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering