Electrochemistry and safety of Li4Ti5O12 and graphite anodes paired with LiMn2O4 for hybrid electric vehicle Li-ion battery applications

Ilias Belharouak, Gary M. Koenig, K. Amine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

102 Citations (Scopus)


A promising anode material for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is Li 4Ti5O12 (LTO). LTO intercalates lithium at a voltage of ∼1.5 V relative to lithium metal, and thus this material has a lower energy compared to a graphite anode for a given cathode material. However, LTO has promising safety and cycle life characteristics relative to graphite anodes. Herein, we describe electrochemical and safety characterizations of LTO and graphite anodes paired with LiMn2O4 cathodes in pouch cells. The LTO anode outperformed graphite with regards to capacity retention on extended cycling, pulsing impedance, and calendar life and was found to be more stable to thermal abuse from analysis of gases generated at elevated temperatures and calorimetric data. The safety, calendar life, and pulsing performance of LTO make it an attractive alternative to graphite for high power automotive applications, in particular when paired with LiMn2O 4 cathode materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10344-10350
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes



  • HEV
  • Lithium battery
  • Lithium Titanate
  • PHEV
  • Safety
  • Spinel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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