Cytokines are major regulators of the immune response, and have been used as adjuvants to improve vaccine potency. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant effects of interleukin (IL)-15 on improving the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 gag DNA vaccine in Balb/c mice. During a 370-day follow-up, cellular and humoral immune responses in three separate cohorts of mice were monitored. These results were exemplified through: lymphocyte proliferation, induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, long-term production of specific antibodies, and proportion of differentiated memory CD8+ T cells. These data revealed that just boost of IL-15 at day 8 after co-immunization induced more homeostatic cell proliferation, augmented proliferation frequency of IFN-γ-secreting antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, maintained the long-lasting humoral immune response and promoted the turnover of memory T cell precursors into central memory T cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated that a single IL-15 boosting can enhance both the humoral and cellular immune responses of the HIV-1 gag DNA vaccination. This novel boosting strategy may facilitate the application of IL-15 as an adjuvant for HIV vaccination.
- HIV-1 DNA vaccine
- IL-15 plasmid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases