Dual stage PRO process: impact of the membrane materials of the process performance

Ali Altaee, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Adel Sharif, Guillermo Zaragoza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


A dual stage pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process was investigated for power generation using different types of membranes. Polyamide (PA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were used in the first and second stage of the PRO process to improve the process performance due to the high water permeability of PA membranes. A comparison between dual stage PA–CTA and CTA–CTA membrane systems were carried out using seawater as a draw solution, while fresh water and wastewater effluent were the feed solution in the first and second stage of the process. The impact of draw solution flow rate on the process performance was evaluated. The performance of first and second stage of the PRO process increased by 11.5 and 28.6%, respectively, when the draw solution flow rate increased by a factor of 2.5. In return, there was a negligible increase in the total specific power consumption of the PRO process. In general, power consumption of the dual stage PRO process was as low as 0.3 kWh/m3. Furthermore, the results showed that the performance of the dual stage PRO process increased with increasing seawater salinity from 32 to 50 g/L due to the higher net driving pressure across the membrane. Finally, power generation in the PA–CTA system was up to 33% higher than that in the CTA–CTA system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6172-6183
Number of pages12
JournalDesalination and Water Treatment
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2016



  • Dual stage PRO
  • Osmotic power plant
  • Polyamide membranes
  • Pressure retarded osmosis
  • Renewable energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Ocean Engineering

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