Diffraction and holography with photoelectrons and fluorescent X-rays

C. S. Fadley, Y. Chen, R. E. Couch, H. Daimon, R. Denecke, J. D. Denlinger, H. Galloway, Z. Hussaint, A. P. Kaduwela, Y. J. Kim, P. M. Len, J. Liesegang, J. Menchero, J. Morais, J. Palomares, S. D. Ruebush, E. Rotenberg, M. B. Salmeron, R. Scalettar, W. SchattkeR. Singh, S. Thevuthasan, E. D. Tober, M. A. Van Hove, Z. Wang, R. X. Ynzunza

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    60 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We consider studies of the atomic and magnetic structure near surfaces by photoelectron diffraction and by the holographic inversion of both photoelectron diffraction data and diffraction data involving the emission of fluorescent x-rays. The current status of photoelectron diffraction studies of surfaces, interfaces, and other nanostructures is first briefly reviewed, and then several recent developments and proposals for future areas of application are discussed. The application of full-solid-angle diffraction data, together with simultaneous characterization by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, to the epitaxial growth of oxides and metals is considered. Several new avenues that are being opened up by third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are also discussed. These include site-resolved photoelectron diffraction from surface and interface atoms, the possibility of time-resolved measurements of surface reactions with chemical-state resolution, and circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distributions from both non-magnetic and magnetic systems. The addition of spin to the photoelectron diffraction measurement is also considered as a method for studying short-range magnetic order, including the measurement of surface magnetic phase transitions. This spin sensitivity can be achieved through either core-level multiplet splittings or circular-polarized excitation of spin-orbit-split levels. The direct imaging of short-range atomic structure by both photoelectron holography and two distinct types of x-ray holography involving fluorescent emission is also discussed. Both photoelectron and x-ray holography have demonstrated the ability to directly determine at least approximate atomic structures in three dimensions. Photoelectron holography with spin resolution may make it possible also to study short-range magnetic order in a holographic fashion. Although much more recent in its first experimental demonstrations, x-ray fluorescence holography should permit deriving more accurate atomic images for a variety of materials, including both surface and bulk regions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)341-386
    Number of pages46
    JournalProgress in Surface Science
    Volume54
    Issue number3-4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1997

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemistry(all)
    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Surfaces and Interfaces
    • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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    Fadley, C. S., Chen, Y., Couch, R. E., Daimon, H., Denecke, R., Denlinger, J. D., Galloway, H., Hussaint, Z., Kaduwela, A. P., Kim, Y. J., Len, P. M., Liesegang, J., Menchero, J., Morais, J., Palomares, J., Ruebush, S. D., Rotenberg, E., Salmeron, M. B., Scalettar, R., ... Ynzunza, R. X. (1997). Diffraction and holography with photoelectrons and fluorescent X-rays. Progress in Surface Science, 54(3-4), 341-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6816(97)00013-0