Diagnosing diabetic neuropathy: Something old, something new

Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Georgios Ponirakis, Adnan Khan, Hamad Almuhannadi, Hoda Gad, Rayaz Malik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

10 Citations (Scopus)


There are potentially many ways of assessing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, they do not fulfill U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements in relation to their capacity to assess therapeutic benefit in clinical trials of DPN. Over the past several decades symptoms and signs, quantitative sensory and electrodiagnostic testing have been strongly endorsed, but have consistently failed as surrogate end points in clinical trials. Therefore, there is an unmet need for reliable biomarkers to capture the onset and progression and to facilitate drug discovery in DPN. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging modality for in vivo evaluation of sensory C-fibers. An increasing body of evidence from multiple centers worldwide suggests that CCM fulfills the FDA criteria as a surrogate endpoint of DPN.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-269
Number of pages15
JournalDiabetes and Metabolism Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018



  • Complications
  • Diabetic neuropathies
  • Diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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