Diagnosing and managing diabetic somatic and autonomic neuropathy

Shazli Azmi, Maryam Ferdousi, Alise Kalteniece, Hamad Al-Muhannadi, Abdulrahman Al-Mohamedi, Nebras H. Hadid, Salah Mahmoud, Harun A. Bhat, Hoda Y.A. Gad, Adnan Khan, Georgios Ponirakis, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Uazman Alam, Rayaz A. Malik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)


The diagnosis and management of diabetic neuropathy can be a major challenge. Late diagnosis contributes to significant morbidity in the form of painful diabetic neuropathy, foot ulceration, amputation, and increased mortality. Both hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular risk factors are implicated in the development of somatic and autonomic neuropathy and an improvement in these risk factors can reduce their rate of development and progression. There are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disease-modifying treatments for either somatic or autonomic neuropathy, as a consequence of multiple failed phase III clinical trials. While this may be partly attributed to premature translation, there are major shortcomings in trial design and outcome measures. There are a limited number of partially effective FDA-approved treatments for the symptomatic relief of painful diabetic neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019



  • autonomic neuropathy
  • diabetic neuropathy
  • diagnosis
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Azmi, S., Ferdousi, M., Kalteniece, A., Al-Muhannadi, H., Al-Mohamedi, A., Hadid, N. H., Mahmoud, S., Bhat, H. A., Gad, H. Y. A., Khan, A., Ponirakis, G., Petropoulos, I. N., Alam, U., & Malik, R. A. (2019). Diagnosing and managing diabetic somatic and autonomic neuropathy. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042018819826890