Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers

Luc Vechot, L. Cusco, J. Hare, M. Bishopp

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In the chemical industry, several incidents involving the exposure of storage, transport and reactor vessels to fire have been reported. The main aim of this paper is to identify methods to improve safety measures for vessels containing reactive chemicals (e.g. monomers) that could be exposed to fire. This is done by developing and assessing experimental and theoretical methods for the measurement of the temperature and pressure rise rates resulting from a runaway reaction with external heat input. A commercially available adiabatic calorimeter was adapted for simulating the effect of an external heat input on reactive chemicals. Four heat input designs were tested. A new method of using an immersion cartridge heater with a custom test cell was shown to be the best heat input setup, the input power from the power supply being fully used to heat the system. Good experimental results were obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction (vapour system) and the decomposition reaction of 20% di-tert-butyl-peroxide in toluene (tempered hybrid system). It was measured experimentally that increasing the external heat input leads to a decrease of the reaction completion time, an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure, and an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure rise rates. This would have severe implications if it occurred in an industrial accident. The validity of two theoretical correction methods of adiabatic data were tested experimentally using the data obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction. The correction method proposed by Huff gave conservative results, with the significant advantage of only requiring limited input data. However, in the case of systems showing multiple overlapping reactions with different activation energies, Huff's approach would fail. A dynamic model taking into account the effect of external heating is likely to give better results, however its implementation would require a detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the chemical system, which is not often available. Especially when the chemical system is too complex to be simulated by a dynamic model, the kinetic data is not available, or when it is outside the application range of Huff's method, the experimental technique developed in this work would be a reliable, cost-effective and convenient alternative.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection
Pages375-384
Number of pages10
Edition155
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes
Event21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection - Manchester, United Kingdom
Duration: 10 Nov 200912 Nov 2009

Other

Other21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityManchester
Period10/11/0912/11/09

Fingerprint

Monomers
Methanol
Dynamic models
Fires
Kinetics
Toluene
Chemical industry
Peroxides
Calorimeters
Hybrid systems
Temperature
Hot Temperature
Accidents
Activation energy
Vapors
Decomposition
Heating
Costs
acetic anhydride

Keywords

  • Acetic anhydride
  • Adiabatic calorimetry
  • Di-tert-butyl peroxide
  • Fire exposure
  • Huff's method
  • Methanol
  • Reaction kinetics
  • Runaway reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Vechot, L., Cusco, L., Hare, J., & Bishopp, M. (2009). Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers. In 21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection (155 ed., pp. 375-384)

Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers. / Vechot, Luc; Cusco, L.; Hare, J.; Bishopp, M.

21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 155. ed. 2009. p. 375-384.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Vechot, L, Cusco, L, Hare, J & Bishopp, M 2009, Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers. in 21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 155 edn, pp. 375-384, 21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Manchester, United Kingdom, 10/11/09.
Vechot L, Cusco L, Hare J, Bishopp M. Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers. In 21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 155 ed. 2009. p. 375-384
Vechot, Luc ; Cusco, L. ; Hare, J. ; Bishopp, M. / Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers. 21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 155. ed. 2009. pp. 375-384
@inproceedings{2ec69a0550154691939aacbe98474047,
title = "Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers",
abstract = "In the chemical industry, several incidents involving the exposure of storage, transport and reactor vessels to fire have been reported. The main aim of this paper is to identify methods to improve safety measures for vessels containing reactive chemicals (e.g. monomers) that could be exposed to fire. This is done by developing and assessing experimental and theoretical methods for the measurement of the temperature and pressure rise rates resulting from a runaway reaction with external heat input. A commercially available adiabatic calorimeter was adapted for simulating the effect of an external heat input on reactive chemicals. Four heat input designs were tested. A new method of using an immersion cartridge heater with a custom test cell was shown to be the best heat input setup, the input power from the power supply being fully used to heat the system. Good experimental results were obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction (vapour system) and the decomposition reaction of 20{\%} di-tert-butyl-peroxide in toluene (tempered hybrid system). It was measured experimentally that increasing the external heat input leads to a decrease of the reaction completion time, an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure, and an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure rise rates. This would have severe implications if it occurred in an industrial accident. The validity of two theoretical correction methods of adiabatic data were tested experimentally using the data obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction. The correction method proposed by Huff gave conservative results, with the significant advantage of only requiring limited input data. However, in the case of systems showing multiple overlapping reactions with different activation energies, Huff's approach would fail. A dynamic model taking into account the effect of external heating is likely to give better results, however its implementation would require a detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the chemical system, which is not often available. Especially when the chemical system is too complex to be simulated by a dynamic model, the kinetic data is not available, or when it is outside the application range of Huff's method, the experimental technique developed in this work would be a reliable, cost-effective and convenient alternative.",
keywords = "Acetic anhydride, Adiabatic calorimetry, Di-tert-butyl peroxide, Fire exposure, Huff's method, Methanol, Reaction kinetics, Runaway reaction",
author = "Luc Vechot and L. Cusco and J. Hare and M. Bishopp",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781615678051",
pages = "375--384",
booktitle = "21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection",
edition = "155",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Development and evaluation of experimental calorimetric systems for the simulation of an external heat input on reactive chemicals and monomers

AU - Vechot, Luc

AU - Cusco, L.

AU - Hare, J.

AU - Bishopp, M.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - In the chemical industry, several incidents involving the exposure of storage, transport and reactor vessels to fire have been reported. The main aim of this paper is to identify methods to improve safety measures for vessels containing reactive chemicals (e.g. monomers) that could be exposed to fire. This is done by developing and assessing experimental and theoretical methods for the measurement of the temperature and pressure rise rates resulting from a runaway reaction with external heat input. A commercially available adiabatic calorimeter was adapted for simulating the effect of an external heat input on reactive chemicals. Four heat input designs were tested. A new method of using an immersion cartridge heater with a custom test cell was shown to be the best heat input setup, the input power from the power supply being fully used to heat the system. Good experimental results were obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction (vapour system) and the decomposition reaction of 20% di-tert-butyl-peroxide in toluene (tempered hybrid system). It was measured experimentally that increasing the external heat input leads to a decrease of the reaction completion time, an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure, and an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure rise rates. This would have severe implications if it occurred in an industrial accident. The validity of two theoretical correction methods of adiabatic data were tested experimentally using the data obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction. The correction method proposed by Huff gave conservative results, with the significant advantage of only requiring limited input data. However, in the case of systems showing multiple overlapping reactions with different activation energies, Huff's approach would fail. A dynamic model taking into account the effect of external heating is likely to give better results, however its implementation would require a detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the chemical system, which is not often available. Especially when the chemical system is too complex to be simulated by a dynamic model, the kinetic data is not available, or when it is outside the application range of Huff's method, the experimental technique developed in this work would be a reliable, cost-effective and convenient alternative.

AB - In the chemical industry, several incidents involving the exposure of storage, transport and reactor vessels to fire have been reported. The main aim of this paper is to identify methods to improve safety measures for vessels containing reactive chemicals (e.g. monomers) that could be exposed to fire. This is done by developing and assessing experimental and theoretical methods for the measurement of the temperature and pressure rise rates resulting from a runaway reaction with external heat input. A commercially available adiabatic calorimeter was adapted for simulating the effect of an external heat input on reactive chemicals. Four heat input designs were tested. A new method of using an immersion cartridge heater with a custom test cell was shown to be the best heat input setup, the input power from the power supply being fully used to heat the system. Good experimental results were obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction (vapour system) and the decomposition reaction of 20% di-tert-butyl-peroxide in toluene (tempered hybrid system). It was measured experimentally that increasing the external heat input leads to a decrease of the reaction completion time, an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure, and an increase of the maximum temperature and pressure rise rates. This would have severe implications if it occurred in an industrial accident. The validity of two theoretical correction methods of adiabatic data were tested experimentally using the data obtained with the methanol p acetic anhydride reaction. The correction method proposed by Huff gave conservative results, with the significant advantage of only requiring limited input data. However, in the case of systems showing multiple overlapping reactions with different activation energies, Huff's approach would fail. A dynamic model taking into account the effect of external heating is likely to give better results, however its implementation would require a detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the chemical system, which is not often available. Especially when the chemical system is too complex to be simulated by a dynamic model, the kinetic data is not available, or when it is outside the application range of Huff's method, the experimental technique developed in this work would be a reliable, cost-effective and convenient alternative.

KW - Acetic anhydride

KW - Adiabatic calorimetry

KW - Di-tert-butyl peroxide

KW - Fire exposure

KW - Huff's method

KW - Methanol

KW - Reaction kinetics

KW - Runaway reaction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84872463201&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84872463201&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84872463201

SN - 9781615678051

SP - 375

EP - 384

BT - 21st Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Hazards 2009 - Hazards XXI: Process Safety and Environmental Protection

ER -