Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 from CuxSnSy nanoparticle precursors on ZnO nanorod arrays

Jaison Kavalakkatt, Xianzhong Lin, Kai Kornhuber, Patryk Kusch, Ahmed Ennaoui, Stephanie Reich, Martha Ch Lux-Steiner

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Solar cells with Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber thin films have a potential for high energy conversion efficiencies with earth-abundant and non-toxic elements. In this work the formation of CZTSSe from Cu xSnSy nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays as precursors for zinc is investigated. The NPs are prepared using a chemical route and are dispersed in toluene. The ZnO NRs are grown on fluorine doped SnO2 coated glass substrates by electro deposition method. A series of samples are annealed at different temperatures between 300 C and 550 C in selenium containing argon atmosphere. To investigate the products of the reaction between the precursors the series is analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology is recorded by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of broken cross sections. The XRD measurements and the SEM images show the disappearing of ZnO NRs with increasing annealing temperature. Simultaneously the XRD and Raman measurements show the formation of CZTSSe. The formation of secondary phases and the optimum conditions for the preparation of CZTSSe is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-383
Number of pages4
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2013



  • CZTS
  • Kesterite
  • Nanoparticle
  • Nanorod
  • Raman
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Kavalakkatt, J., Lin, X., Kornhuber, K., Kusch, P., Ennaoui, A., Reich, S., & Lux-Steiner, M. C. (2013). Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 from CuxSnSy nanoparticle precursors on ZnO nanorod arrays. Thin Solid Films, 535(1), 380-383.