Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film absorbers based on ZnS, SnS and Cu3SnS4 nanoparticle inks

Enhanced solar cells performance by using a two-step annealing process

Xianzhong Lin, Jaison Kavalakkatt, Ahmed Ennaoui, Martha Ch Lux-Steiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper, we present the fabrication of Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film absorbers by a four-step solution process based on ZnS, SnS and Cu3SnS4 nanoparticle precursors and their application in thin film solar cells. The influence of ligand-exchange process on the morphologies of the resulting CZTSSe thin films was studied. Ligand exchange with each sequential spun coat layers leads to cracking films which can be avoided by combining ligand-exchanged and non-ligand-exchanged processes. Moreover, a two-step annealing process yields the most homogeneous films. CZTSSe thin films consisting a large grain and fine nanoparticle grain layered structure was formed. The formation of layered structure for the absorbers was found to be due to the existence of high content of carbon left near the back contact and the out diffusion of Cu and Zn from the bottom layer to the surface layer. As a result, solar cell conversion efficiency was improved from 1.2% to 3.0% upon adoption a two-step annealing process. Temperature dependent I-V characteristic analysis reveals the dominant loss mechanism of the solar cells is the strong CZTSSe and CdS buffer interface recombination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-229
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume132
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ink
Solar cells
Ligands
Annealing
Nanoparticles
Thin films
Conversion efficiency
Buffers
Carbon
Fabrication
Temperature

Keywords

  • CZTS
  • Solar cells
  • Solution process

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film absorbers based on ZnS, SnS and Cu3SnS4 nanoparticle inks : Enhanced solar cells performance by using a two-step annealing process. / Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.

In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 132, 2015, p. 221-229.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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