BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for renal allograft failure after an episode of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) may help the outcome of this difficult-to-treat complication. METHODS: During December 2003 to February 2011, 833 kidney graft recipients underwent 1120 clinically indicated biopsies at our center. We reviewed the biopsy results and identified 87 biopsy specimens from 87 patients positive for the degradation product of complement component 4 (C4d) and acute AMR. We generated Kaplan-Meier survival curves and performed a multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to identify risk factors for allograft failure after C4d+ acute AMR. RESULTS: Among the 87 patients, 26 had a diagnosis of acute AMR according to the Banff '09 classification schema, 29 had acute AMR and chronic active AMR, 18 had acute AMR and acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR), and 14 had acute AMR, chronic active AMR, and acute TCMR. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed that concurrent acute TCMR (P=0.001, Mantel-Cox log-rank test), concurrent chronic active AMR (P=0.03), and time to biopsy (P=0.04) are associated with graft survival. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified that concurrent acute TCMR (hazard ratio, 2.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.21-5.55]; P=0.01) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (hazard ratio, 0.65 [95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.88]; P=0.01) are independent risk factors for allograft loss. Concurrent chronic active AMR or time to biopsy was not associated with graft failure by the multivariable Cox analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our single-center study has elucidated that concurrent acute TCMR in kidney transplant recipients with C4d+ acute AMR is an independent risk factor for graft failure. Level of allograft function at the time of diagnosis was also an independent predictor of graft loss.
- Acute antibody-mediated rejection
- Acute T-cellYmediated rejection
- Graft survival
- Renal transplantation
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