Comparison of stannous and stannic chloride as sensitizing agents in the electroless deposition of silver on glass using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

L. R. Pederson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effectiveness of SnCl2 and SnCl4 in the sensitization of soda lime silicate glass for silver mirror production was investigated using XPS. Precleaned glasses treated with 2.5 × 10-3 M solutions of either SnCl2 or SnCl4 showed similar levels of tin uptake (3 to 5 at%) that could not be removed by extensive rinsing in distilled water. Oxidation states of the bound tin were not easily distinguished by XPS measurements, however their chemical reactivities were quite dissimilar. Upon exposure of the sensitized glass surfaces to ammoniacal silver nitrate, approximately two silver atoms became attached per surface tin atom for the SnCl2-treated specimens. In contrast, most of the tin was lost from the SnCl4-treated glass surfaces after identical treatment. Approximately one silver atom became bound per remaining three tin atoms in the latter case. Auger parameter data indicated that the ionic character of the silver-tin bond was greater than that of metallic silver but less than that of the silver-oxygen bond in either silver oxide or ion-exchanged silver in the glass. An oxidation-reduction mechanism is proposed for the sensitization reaction of silver with surface stannous ions that is consistent with XPS results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-232
Number of pages12
JournalSolar Energy Materials
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1982
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Electroless plating
Silver
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Glass
Tin
Atoms
Silver oxides
Chemical reactivity
Ions
Lime
Silicates
Nitrates
Mirrors
Oxidation
Oxygen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

@article{46ffc85ffc774b46ac491742939d6b09,
title = "Comparison of stannous and stannic chloride as sensitizing agents in the electroless deposition of silver on glass using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy",
abstract = "The effectiveness of SnCl2 and SnCl4 in the sensitization of soda lime silicate glass for silver mirror production was investigated using XPS. Precleaned glasses treated with 2.5 × 10-3 M solutions of either SnCl2 or SnCl4 showed similar levels of tin uptake (3 to 5 at{\%}) that could not be removed by extensive rinsing in distilled water. Oxidation states of the bound tin were not easily distinguished by XPS measurements, however their chemical reactivities were quite dissimilar. Upon exposure of the sensitized glass surfaces to ammoniacal silver nitrate, approximately two silver atoms became attached per surface tin atom for the SnCl2-treated specimens. In contrast, most of the tin was lost from the SnCl4-treated glass surfaces after identical treatment. Approximately one silver atom became bound per remaining three tin atoms in the latter case. Auger parameter data indicated that the ionic character of the silver-tin bond was greater than that of metallic silver but less than that of the silver-oxygen bond in either silver oxide or ion-exchanged silver in the glass. An oxidation-reduction mechanism is proposed for the sensitization reaction of silver with surface stannous ions that is consistent with XPS results.",
author = "Pederson, {L. R.}",
year = "1982",
doi = "10.1016/0165-1633(82)90022-3",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "221--232",
journal = "Solar Energy Materials",
issn = "0165-1633",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of stannous and stannic chloride as sensitizing agents in the electroless deposition of silver on glass using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

AU - Pederson, L. R.

PY - 1982

Y1 - 1982

N2 - The effectiveness of SnCl2 and SnCl4 in the sensitization of soda lime silicate glass for silver mirror production was investigated using XPS. Precleaned glasses treated with 2.5 × 10-3 M solutions of either SnCl2 or SnCl4 showed similar levels of tin uptake (3 to 5 at%) that could not be removed by extensive rinsing in distilled water. Oxidation states of the bound tin were not easily distinguished by XPS measurements, however their chemical reactivities were quite dissimilar. Upon exposure of the sensitized glass surfaces to ammoniacal silver nitrate, approximately two silver atoms became attached per surface tin atom for the SnCl2-treated specimens. In contrast, most of the tin was lost from the SnCl4-treated glass surfaces after identical treatment. Approximately one silver atom became bound per remaining three tin atoms in the latter case. Auger parameter data indicated that the ionic character of the silver-tin bond was greater than that of metallic silver but less than that of the silver-oxygen bond in either silver oxide or ion-exchanged silver in the glass. An oxidation-reduction mechanism is proposed for the sensitization reaction of silver with surface stannous ions that is consistent with XPS results.

AB - The effectiveness of SnCl2 and SnCl4 in the sensitization of soda lime silicate glass for silver mirror production was investigated using XPS. Precleaned glasses treated with 2.5 × 10-3 M solutions of either SnCl2 or SnCl4 showed similar levels of tin uptake (3 to 5 at%) that could not be removed by extensive rinsing in distilled water. Oxidation states of the bound tin were not easily distinguished by XPS measurements, however their chemical reactivities were quite dissimilar. Upon exposure of the sensitized glass surfaces to ammoniacal silver nitrate, approximately two silver atoms became attached per surface tin atom for the SnCl2-treated specimens. In contrast, most of the tin was lost from the SnCl4-treated glass surfaces after identical treatment. Approximately one silver atom became bound per remaining three tin atoms in the latter case. Auger parameter data indicated that the ionic character of the silver-tin bond was greater than that of metallic silver but less than that of the silver-oxygen bond in either silver oxide or ion-exchanged silver in the glass. An oxidation-reduction mechanism is proposed for the sensitization reaction of silver with surface stannous ions that is consistent with XPS results.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019895331&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019895331&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0165-1633(82)90022-3

DO - 10.1016/0165-1633(82)90022-3

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 221

EP - 232

JO - Solar Energy Materials

JF - Solar Energy Materials

SN - 0165-1633

IS - 2

ER -