Circadian endocrine rhythms

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its actions

Nicolas C. Nicolaides, Evangelia Charmandari, George P. Chrousos, Tomoshige Kino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The stress system effectively restores the internal balance-or homeostasis-of living organisms in the face of random external or internal changes, the stressors. This highly complex system helps organisms to provide a series of neuroendocrine responses to stressors-the stress response-through coordinated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine autonomic nervous systems. In addition to stressors, life is influenced by daily light/dark changes due to the 24-h rotation of Earth. To adjust to these recurrent day/night cycles, the biological clock system employs the heterodimer of transcription factors circadian locomotor output cycle kaput/brain-muscle-arnt-like protein 1 (CLOCK/BMAL1), along with a set of other transcription factors, to regulate the circadian pattern of gene expression. Interestingly, the stress system, through the HPA axis, communicates with the clock system; therefore, any uncoupling or dysregulation could potentially cause several disorders, such as metabolic, autoimmune, and mood disorders. In this review, we discuss the biological function of the two systems, their interactions, and the clinical implications of their dysregulation or uncoupling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-80
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume1318
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Circadian Rhythm
Clocks
Transcription Factors
Biological Clocks
Locus Coeruleus
Autonomic Nervous System
Neurology
Mood Disorders
Gene expression
Muscle
Large scale systems
Brain
Norepinephrine
Homeostasis
Earth (planet)
Chemical activation
Gene Expression
Light
Muscles
Proteins

Keywords

  • Acetylation
  • Circadian clock system
  • Glucocorticoid receptor
  • Glucocorticoids
  • HPA axis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

Cite this

Circadian endocrine rhythms : The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its actions. / Nicolaides, Nicolas C.; Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige.

In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1318, No. 1, 2014, p. 71-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nicolaides, Nicolas C. ; Charmandari, Evangelia ; Chrousos, George P. ; Kino, Tomoshige. / Circadian endocrine rhythms : The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its actions. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2014 ; Vol. 1318, No. 1. pp. 71-80.
@article{bb22298ad55e45e8861bf95a1efe56e2,
title = "Circadian endocrine rhythms: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its actions",
abstract = "The stress system effectively restores the internal balance-or homeostasis-of living organisms in the face of random external or internal changes, the stressors. This highly complex system helps organisms to provide a series of neuroendocrine responses to stressors-the stress response-through coordinated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine autonomic nervous systems. In addition to stressors, life is influenced by daily light/dark changes due to the 24-h rotation of Earth. To adjust to these recurrent day/night cycles, the biological clock system employs the heterodimer of transcription factors circadian locomotor output cycle kaput/brain-muscle-arnt-like protein 1 (CLOCK/BMAL1), along with a set of other transcription factors, to regulate the circadian pattern of gene expression. Interestingly, the stress system, through the HPA axis, communicates with the clock system; therefore, any uncoupling or dysregulation could potentially cause several disorders, such as metabolic, autoimmune, and mood disorders. In this review, we discuss the biological function of the two systems, their interactions, and the clinical implications of their dysregulation or uncoupling.",
keywords = "Acetylation, Circadian clock system, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucocorticoids, HPA axis",
author = "Nicolaides, {Nicolas C.} and Evangelia Charmandari and Chrousos, {George P.} and Tomoshige Kino",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1111/nyas.12464",
language = "English",
volume = "1318",
pages = "71--80",
journal = "Annals of The Lyceum of Natural History of New York",
issn = "0890-6564",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Circadian endocrine rhythms

T2 - The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its actions

AU - Nicolaides, Nicolas C.

AU - Charmandari, Evangelia

AU - Chrousos, George P.

AU - Kino, Tomoshige

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The stress system effectively restores the internal balance-or homeostasis-of living organisms in the face of random external or internal changes, the stressors. This highly complex system helps organisms to provide a series of neuroendocrine responses to stressors-the stress response-through coordinated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine autonomic nervous systems. In addition to stressors, life is influenced by daily light/dark changes due to the 24-h rotation of Earth. To adjust to these recurrent day/night cycles, the biological clock system employs the heterodimer of transcription factors circadian locomotor output cycle kaput/brain-muscle-arnt-like protein 1 (CLOCK/BMAL1), along with a set of other transcription factors, to regulate the circadian pattern of gene expression. Interestingly, the stress system, through the HPA axis, communicates with the clock system; therefore, any uncoupling or dysregulation could potentially cause several disorders, such as metabolic, autoimmune, and mood disorders. In this review, we discuss the biological function of the two systems, their interactions, and the clinical implications of their dysregulation or uncoupling.

AB - The stress system effectively restores the internal balance-or homeostasis-of living organisms in the face of random external or internal changes, the stressors. This highly complex system helps organisms to provide a series of neuroendocrine responses to stressors-the stress response-through coordinated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine autonomic nervous systems. In addition to stressors, life is influenced by daily light/dark changes due to the 24-h rotation of Earth. To adjust to these recurrent day/night cycles, the biological clock system employs the heterodimer of transcription factors circadian locomotor output cycle kaput/brain-muscle-arnt-like protein 1 (CLOCK/BMAL1), along with a set of other transcription factors, to regulate the circadian pattern of gene expression. Interestingly, the stress system, through the HPA axis, communicates with the clock system; therefore, any uncoupling or dysregulation could potentially cause several disorders, such as metabolic, autoimmune, and mood disorders. In this review, we discuss the biological function of the two systems, their interactions, and the clinical implications of their dysregulation or uncoupling.

KW - Acetylation

KW - Circadian clock system

KW - Glucocorticoid receptor

KW - Glucocorticoids

KW - HPA axis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84901755483&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84901755483&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/nyas.12464

DO - 10.1111/nyas.12464

M3 - Article

VL - 1318

SP - 71

EP - 80

JO - Annals of The Lyceum of Natural History of New York

JF - Annals of The Lyceum of Natural History of New York

SN - 0890-6564

IS - 1

ER -