Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile

Wing Chi G Yeung, Ammira S. Akil, Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Marc R. Wilkins, Jacki Catteau, Neville J. Howard, William D. Rawlinson, Maria E. Craig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet auto-immunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab +) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab -) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR + in plasma and/or stool (EV +) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV2). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ≤ 0.01) in Ab + versus Ab - children (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factora-α chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV + versus EV - children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab +EV + and Ab +EV - children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab + children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1500-1508
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes
Volume61
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Enterovirus Infections
Enterovirus
Autoimmunity
Cytokines
Prediabetic State
Interleukin-10
Autoantibodies
Interleukin-16
Ligands
Thrombopoietin
CXC Chemokines
Interleukin-7
CC Chemokines
Interleukin-17
Interleukins
Interleukin-5
Interleukin-12
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Interleukin-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Yeung, W. C. G., Akil, A. S., Pang, C. N. I., Wilkins, M. R., Catteau, J., Howard, N. J., ... Craig, M. E. (2012). Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile. Diabetes, 61(6), 1500-1508. https://doi.org/10.2337/db11-0264

Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile. / Yeung, Wing Chi G; Akil, Ammira S.; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R.; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J.; Rawlinson, William D.; Craig, Maria E.

In: Diabetes, Vol. 61, No. 6, 06.2012, p. 1500-1508.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yeung, WCG, Akil, AS, Pang, CNI, Wilkins, MR, Catteau, J, Howard, NJ, Rawlinson, WD & Craig, ME 2012, 'Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile', Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1500-1508. https://doi.org/10.2337/db11-0264
Yeung, Wing Chi G ; Akil, Ammira S. ; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius ; Wilkins, Marc R. ; Catteau, Jacki ; Howard, Neville J. ; Rawlinson, William D. ; Craig, Maria E. / Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile. In: Diabetes. 2012 ; Vol. 61, No. 6. pp. 1500-1508.
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abstract = "Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet auto-immunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab +) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab -) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50{\%}) were EV-PCR + in plasma and/or stool (EV +) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV2). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ≤ 0.01) in Ab + versus Ab - children (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factora-α chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV + versus EV - children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab +EV + and Ab +EV - children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab + children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile.",
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