Characteristics of rocks and their excavation in Makkah tunnels ( Saudi Arabia).

M. A. Darwish, M. Hanif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Makkah is situated in the Pre-Cambrian mountainous region of the W Arabian Shield. A brief description of important rock types and their geological and mechanical characteristics is presented. The design criteria and procedures of rock excavation and tunnel support and reinforcement are discussed. The need for using feed-back from construction and operational experience as well as local research effort in the updating of design criteria is emphasized. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-154
Number of pages10
JournalUnknown Journal
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1986


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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