Characteristics of a large cohort of patients with diabetes having at-risk feet and outcomes in patients with foot ulceration referred to a tertiary care diabetes unit

Musarrat Riaz, Zahid Miyan, Syed I. Zaidi, Syed Fd Alvi, Asher Fawwad, Muhammad Y. Ahmadani, Asim B. Zafar, Rayaz Malik, Abdul Basit

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6 Citations (Scopus)


To identify in a large population cohort the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration and outcomes in those with foot ulcers. All patients with diabetes attending Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology from January 2004 to April 2012 included in the study. Clinical, biochemical and socio-demographic data were collected and patients were categorised into those at no risk of ulceration, at risk of ulceration and those with foot ulcer, according to the University of Texas classification. Patients with foot ulceration followed for their final outcome, that is complete healing, persisted non-healed ulcer, lower extremity amputation, lost to follow-up or death. A total of 18 119 patients with diabetes underwent assessment, 3576 (19·7%) patients defined as at high risk for foot ulceration and 3731 (20·6%) presented with foot ulcer. Age, male gender, hypertension, higher glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), history of smoking and presence of neuropathy were risk factors (P < 0·000) for foot ulceration. Amputation rate in patients with foot ulceration was significantly related to severity of ulceration at presentation. Preventive foot care practices were followed by 19·02% patients. One thousand eight hundred seventy three (50·2%) patients completely healed, 293 (11%) patients underwent amputation and 397 (10·1%) patients continued to be treated in the foot clinic. All patients with diabetes should be screened for neuropathy to identify those at risk of foot ulceration, as it is the major contributory factor for foot ulceration. The final outcome of foot ulceration was determined by the severity and grade of ulcer at presentation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)594-599
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Wound Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016



  • Amputation
  • Diabetic foot
  • Feet at risk
  • Foot ulcer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology

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