Glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal glands have extremely diverse effects on many physiological functions. They exert most of their actions by changing the transcription rates of responsive genes through intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Glucocorticoid-bound GR interacts with specific DNA sequences called glucocorticoid response elements located in the promoter regions of many responsive genes, directly stimulating or suppressing their transcriptional activities. Glucocorticoid-bound GR also indirectly modulates the transcriptional activity of numerous transcription factors by associating with them via mutual protein-protein interactions. Though these mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, glucocorticoids exert their effects in different, distinct cells, tissues and organs, including the central nervous, metabolic, musculo-skeletal, connective tissue and cardiovascular systems.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Behavioral Neuroscience