Background: Resveratrol (RES), an estrogen analog, is considered as a potential cancer chemo-preventive agent. However, it remains unclear how RES is transported into cells. In this study, we observed that Caveolin-1(CAV1) expression can increase the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity of RES in a dose- and time-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo in a Hepatocellular Carcinoma animal model. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated that RES intra-cellular concentration is increased about 2-fold in cells stably expressing CAV1 or CAVM1 (a scaffolding domain (81-101AA)-defective CAV1 mutant) compared to the untransduced human Hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) or after transduction with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) control vector. The increased intra-cellular transport of RES was abolished in cells stably expressing CAVM2 (a cholesterol shuttle domain (143-156AA)-defective CAV1 mutant) or CAVRNAi. In order to further characterize CAV1-dependent RES transport, we synthesized RES-dansyl chloride derivatives as fluorescent probes to visualize the transport process, which demonstrated a distribution consistent with that of CAV1 in HepG2 cells. Results: In addition, RES endocytosis was not mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α and β, as suggested by lack of competitive inhibition by estrogen or Tamoxifen. Pathway analysis showed that RES can up-regulate the expression of endogenous CAV1; this activates further the MAPK pathway and caspase-3 expression. Discussion: This study provides novel insights about the role played by CAV1 in modulating cellular sensitivity to RES through enhancement of its internalization and trafficking.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)