Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

Bin Zhang, Yi Liu, Tomasz Olewski, Luc Vechot, M. Sam Mannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-388
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume280
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2014

Fingerprint

Natural Gas
liquefied natural gas
Furunculosis
Liquefied natural gas
foam
Vaporization
Volatilization
Foams
Vapors
Hazards
Convection
Hot Temperature
vaporization
Drainage
Water
Heat convection
Radiation
Heat radiation
Hazardous materials spills
Liquid nitrogen

Keywords

  • Blanketing effect
  • Expansion foam
  • LNG
  • Vapor hazard
  • Vaporization rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool. / Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M. Sam.

In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 280, 15.09.2014, p. 380-388.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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