Binary microlensing event OGLE-2009-BLG-020 gives verifiable mass, distance, and orbit predictions

J. Skowron, A. Udalski, A. Gould, Subo Dong, L. A G Monard, C. Han, C. R. Nelson, J. McCormick, D. Moorhouse, G. Thornley, A. Maury, D. M. Bramich, J. Greenhill, S. Kozłowski, I. Bond, R. Poleski, L. Wyrzykowski, K. Ulaczyk, M. Kubiak, M. K. Szymański & 82 others G. Pietrzyński, I. Soszyński, B. S. Gaudi, J. C. Yee, L. W. Hung, R. W. Pogge, D. L. Depoy, C. U. Lee, B. G. Park, W. Allen, F. Mallia, J. Drummond, G. Bolt, A. Allan, P. Browne, N. Clay, M. Dominik, S. Fraser, K. Horne, N. Kains, C. Mottram, C. Snodgrass, I. Steele, R. A. Street, Y. Tsapras, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, C. S. Botzler, D. Douchin, M. Freeman, A. Fukui, K. Furusawa, F. Hayashi, J. B. Hearnshaw, S. Hosaka, Y. Itow, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, A. Korpela, W. Lin, C. H. Ling, S. Makita, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, T. Nagayama, N. Miyake, K. Nishimoto, K. Ohnishi, Y. C. Perrott, N. Rattenbury, To Saito, L. Skuljan, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, D. Suzuki, W. L. Sweatman, P. J. Tristram, K. Wada, P. C M Yock, J. P. Beaulieu, P. Fouqué, M. D. Albrow, V. Batista, S. Brillant, J. A R Caldwell, A. Cassan, A. Cole, K. H. Cook, Ch Coutures, S. Dieters, D. Dominis Prester, J. Donatowicz, S. R. Kane, D. Kubas, J. B. Marquette, R. Martin, J. Menzies, K. C. Sahu, J. Wambsganss, A. Williams, M. Zub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the first example of binary microlensing for which the parameter measurements can be verified (or contradicted) by future Doppler observations. This test is made possible by a confluence of two relatively unusual circumstances. First, the binary lens is bright enough (I = 15.6) to permit Doppler measurements. Second, we measure not only the usual seven binary-lens parameters, but also the "microlens parallax" (which yields the binary mass) and two components of the instantaneous orbital velocity. Thus, we measure, effectively, six "Kepler+1" parameters (two instantaneous positions, two instantaneous velocities, the binary total mass, and the mass ratio). Since Doppler observations of the brighter binary component determine five Kepler parameters (period, velocity amplitude, eccentricity, phase, and position of periapsis), while the same spectroscopy yields the mass of the primary, the combined Doppler + microlensing observations would be overconstrained by 6 + (5 + 1) - (7 + 1) = 4 degrees of freedom. This makes possible an extremely strong test of the microlensing solution. We also introduce a uniform microlensing notation for single and binary lenses, define conventions, summarize all known microlensing degeneracies, and extend a set of parameters to describe full Keplerian motion of the binary lenses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number87
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume738
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

orbits
lenses
prediction
predictions
orbital velocity
parallax
confluence
eccentricity
mass ratios
coding
degrees of freedom
spectroscopy
parameter
test

Keywords

  • binaries: general
  • Galaxy: bulge
  • gravitational lensing: micro

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Skowron, J., Udalski, A., Gould, A., Dong, S., Monard, L. A. G., Han, C., ... Zub, M. (2011). Binary microlensing event OGLE-2009-BLG-020 gives verifiable mass, distance, and orbit predictions. Astrophysical Journal, 738(1), [87]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/87

Binary microlensing event OGLE-2009-BLG-020 gives verifiable mass, distance, and orbit predictions. / Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Dong, Subo; Monard, L. A G; Han, C.; Nelson, C. R.; McCormick, J.; Moorhouse, D.; Thornley, G.; Maury, A.; Bramich, D. M.; Greenhill, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Bond, I.; Poleski, R.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kubiak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Gaudi, B. S.; Yee, J. C.; Hung, L. W.; Pogge, R. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Lee, C. U.; Park, B. G.; Allen, W.; Mallia, F.; Drummond, J.; Bolt, G.; Allan, A.; Browne, P.; Clay, N.; Dominik, M.; Fraser, S.; Horne, K.; Kains, N.; Mottram, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I.; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Botzler, C. S.; Douchin, D.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Furusawa, K.; Hayashi, F.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Hosaka, S.; Itow, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Korpela, A.; Lin, W.; Ling, C. H.; Makita, S.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagayama, T.; Miyake, N.; Nishimoto, K.; Ohnishi, K.; Perrott, Y. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To; Skuljan, L.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Wada, K.; Yock, P. C M; Beaulieu, J. P.; Fouqué, P.; Albrow, M. D.; Batista, V.; Brillant, S.; Caldwell, J. A R; Cassan, A.; Cole, A.; Cook, K. H.; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S.; Prester, D. Dominis; Donatowicz, J.; Kane, S. R.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.; Martin, R.; Menzies, J.; Sahu, K. C.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 738, No. 1, 87, 01.09.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Skowron, J, Udalski, A, Gould, A, Dong, S, Monard, LAG, Han, C, Nelson, CR, McCormick, J, Moorhouse, D, Thornley, G, Maury, A, Bramich, DM, Greenhill, J, Kozłowski, S, Bond, I, Poleski, R, Wyrzykowski, L, Ulaczyk, K, Kubiak, M, Szymański, MK, Pietrzyński, G, Soszyński, I, Gaudi, BS, Yee, JC, Hung, LW, Pogge, RW, Depoy, DL, Lee, CU, Park, BG, Allen, W, Mallia, F, Drummond, J, Bolt, G, Allan, A, Browne, P, Clay, N, Dominik, M, Fraser, S, Horne, K, Kains, N, Mottram, C, Snodgrass, C, Steele, I, Street, RA, Tsapras, Y, Abe, F, Bennett, DP, Botzler, CS, Douchin, D, Freeman, M, Fukui, A, Furusawa, K, Hayashi, F, Hearnshaw, JB, Hosaka, S, Itow, Y, Kamiya, K, Kilmartin, PM, Korpela, A, Lin, W, Ling, CH, Makita, S, Masuda, K, Matsubara, Y, Muraki, Y, Nagayama, T, Miyake, N, Nishimoto, K, Ohnishi, K, Perrott, YC, Rattenbury, N, Saito, T, Skuljan, L, Sullivan, DJ, Sumi, T, Suzuki, D, Sweatman, WL, Tristram, PJ, Wada, K, Yock, PCM, Beaulieu, JP, Fouqué, P, Albrow, MD, Batista, V, Brillant, S, Caldwell, JAR, Cassan, A, Cole, A, Cook, KH, Coutures, C, Dieters, S, Prester, DD, Donatowicz, J, Kane, SR, Kubas, D, Marquette, JB, Martin, R, Menzies, J, Sahu, KC, Wambsganss, J, Williams, A & Zub, M 2011, 'Binary microlensing event OGLE-2009-BLG-020 gives verifiable mass, distance, and orbit predictions', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 738, no. 1, 87. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/87
Skowron, J. ; Udalski, A. ; Gould, A. ; Dong, Subo ; Monard, L. A G ; Han, C. ; Nelson, C. R. ; McCormick, J. ; Moorhouse, D. ; Thornley, G. ; Maury, A. ; Bramich, D. M. ; Greenhill, J. ; Kozłowski, S. ; Bond, I. ; Poleski, R. ; Wyrzykowski, L. ; Ulaczyk, K. ; Kubiak, M. ; Szymański, M. K. ; Pietrzyński, G. ; Soszyński, I. ; Gaudi, B. S. ; Yee, J. C. ; Hung, L. W. ; Pogge, R. W. ; Depoy, D. L. ; Lee, C. U. ; Park, B. G. ; Allen, W. ; Mallia, F. ; Drummond, J. ; Bolt, G. ; Allan, A. ; Browne, P. ; Clay, N. ; Dominik, M. ; Fraser, S. ; Horne, K. ; Kains, N. ; Mottram, C. ; Snodgrass, C. ; Steele, I. ; Street, R. A. ; Tsapras, Y. ; Abe, F. ; Bennett, D. P. ; Botzler, C. S. ; Douchin, D. ; Freeman, M. ; Fukui, A. ; Furusawa, K. ; Hayashi, F. ; Hearnshaw, J. B. ; Hosaka, S. ; Itow, Y. ; Kamiya, K. ; Kilmartin, P. M. ; Korpela, A. ; Lin, W. ; Ling, C. H. ; Makita, S. ; Masuda, K. ; Matsubara, Y. ; Muraki, Y. ; Nagayama, T. ; Miyake, N. ; Nishimoto, K. ; Ohnishi, K. ; Perrott, Y. C. ; Rattenbury, N. ; Saito, To ; Skuljan, L. ; Sullivan, D. J. ; Sumi, T. ; Suzuki, D. ; Sweatman, W. L. ; Tristram, P. J. ; Wada, K. ; Yock, P. C M ; Beaulieu, J. P. ; Fouqué, P. ; Albrow, M. D. ; Batista, V. ; Brillant, S. ; Caldwell, J. A R ; Cassan, A. ; Cole, A. ; Cook, K. H. ; Coutures, Ch ; Dieters, S. ; Prester, D. Dominis ; Donatowicz, J. ; Kane, S. R. ; Kubas, D. ; Marquette, J. B. ; Martin, R. ; Menzies, J. ; Sahu, K. C. ; Wambsganss, J. ; Williams, A. ; Zub, M. / Binary microlensing event OGLE-2009-BLG-020 gives verifiable mass, distance, and orbit predictions. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2011 ; Vol. 738, No. 1.
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T1 - Binary microlensing event OGLE-2009-BLG-020 gives verifiable mass, distance, and orbit predictions

AU - Skowron, J.

AU - Udalski, A.

AU - Gould, A.

AU - Dong, Subo

AU - Monard, L. A G

AU - Han, C.

AU - Nelson, C. R.

AU - McCormick, J.

AU - Moorhouse, D.

AU - Thornley, G.

AU - Maury, A.

AU - Bramich, D. M.

AU - Greenhill, J.

AU - Kozłowski, S.

AU - Bond, I.

AU - Poleski, R.

AU - Wyrzykowski, L.

AU - Ulaczyk, K.

AU - Kubiak, M.

AU - Szymański, M. K.

AU - Pietrzyński, G.

AU - Soszyński, I.

AU - Gaudi, B. S.

AU - Yee, J. C.

AU - Hung, L. W.

AU - Pogge, R. W.

AU - Depoy, D. L.

AU - Lee, C. U.

AU - Park, B. G.

AU - Allen, W.

AU - Mallia, F.

AU - Drummond, J.

AU - Bolt, G.

AU - Allan, A.

AU - Browne, P.

AU - Clay, N.

AU - Dominik, M.

AU - Fraser, S.

AU - Horne, K.

AU - Kains, N.

AU - Mottram, C.

AU - Snodgrass, C.

AU - Steele, I.

AU - Street, R. A.

AU - Tsapras, Y.

AU - Abe, F.

AU - Bennett, D. P.

AU - Botzler, C. S.

AU - Douchin, D.

AU - Freeman, M.

AU - Fukui, A.

AU - Furusawa, K.

AU - Hayashi, F.

AU - Hearnshaw, J. B.

AU - Hosaka, S.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Kamiya, K.

AU - Kilmartin, P. M.

AU - Korpela, A.

AU - Lin, W.

AU - Ling, C. H.

AU - Makita, S.

AU - Masuda, K.

AU - Matsubara, Y.

AU - Muraki, Y.

AU - Nagayama, T.

AU - Miyake, N.

AU - Nishimoto, K.

AU - Ohnishi, K.

AU - Perrott, Y. C.

AU - Rattenbury, N.

AU - Saito, To

AU - Skuljan, L.

AU - Sullivan, D. J.

AU - Sumi, T.

AU - Suzuki, D.

AU - Sweatman, W. L.

AU - Tristram, P. J.

AU - Wada, K.

AU - Yock, P. C M

AU - Beaulieu, J. P.

AU - Fouqué, P.

AU - Albrow, M. D.

AU - Batista, V.

AU - Brillant, S.

AU - Caldwell, J. A R

AU - Cassan, A.

AU - Cole, A.

AU - Cook, K. H.

AU - Coutures, Ch

AU - Dieters, S.

AU - Prester, D. Dominis

AU - Donatowicz, J.

AU - Kane, S. R.

AU - Kubas, D.

AU - Marquette, J. B.

AU - Martin, R.

AU - Menzies, J.

AU - Sahu, K. C.

AU - Wambsganss, J.

AU - Williams, A.

AU - Zub, M.

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N2 - We present the first example of binary microlensing for which the parameter measurements can be verified (or contradicted) by future Doppler observations. This test is made possible by a confluence of two relatively unusual circumstances. First, the binary lens is bright enough (I = 15.6) to permit Doppler measurements. Second, we measure not only the usual seven binary-lens parameters, but also the "microlens parallax" (which yields the binary mass) and two components of the instantaneous orbital velocity. Thus, we measure, effectively, six "Kepler+1" parameters (two instantaneous positions, two instantaneous velocities, the binary total mass, and the mass ratio). Since Doppler observations of the brighter binary component determine five Kepler parameters (period, velocity amplitude, eccentricity, phase, and position of periapsis), while the same spectroscopy yields the mass of the primary, the combined Doppler + microlensing observations would be overconstrained by 6 + (5 + 1) - (7 + 1) = 4 degrees of freedom. This makes possible an extremely strong test of the microlensing solution. We also introduce a uniform microlensing notation for single and binary lenses, define conventions, summarize all known microlensing degeneracies, and extend a set of parameters to describe full Keplerian motion of the binary lenses.

AB - We present the first example of binary microlensing for which the parameter measurements can be verified (or contradicted) by future Doppler observations. This test is made possible by a confluence of two relatively unusual circumstances. First, the binary lens is bright enough (I = 15.6) to permit Doppler measurements. Second, we measure not only the usual seven binary-lens parameters, but also the "microlens parallax" (which yields the binary mass) and two components of the instantaneous orbital velocity. Thus, we measure, effectively, six "Kepler+1" parameters (two instantaneous positions, two instantaneous velocities, the binary total mass, and the mass ratio). Since Doppler observations of the brighter binary component determine five Kepler parameters (period, velocity amplitude, eccentricity, phase, and position of periapsis), while the same spectroscopy yields the mass of the primary, the combined Doppler + microlensing observations would be overconstrained by 6 + (5 + 1) - (7 + 1) = 4 degrees of freedom. This makes possible an extremely strong test of the microlensing solution. We also introduce a uniform microlensing notation for single and binary lenses, define conventions, summarize all known microlensing degeneracies, and extend a set of parameters to describe full Keplerian motion of the binary lenses.

KW - binaries: general

KW - Galaxy: bulge

KW - gravitational lensing: micro

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