Balanced Dynamic Planning in Green Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)


Dynamic planning has been used by network operators for energy saving by switching ON-OFF base stations (BSs) according to the traffic load condition while providing quality-of-service (QoS) guarantee for mobile users. In the literature, research efforts focus mainly on satisfying the QoS of downlink mobile users. However, the impact of dynamic planning on the QoS of uplink mobile users is overlooked. A dynamic planning approach that relies only on the downlink performance of mobile users to determine the BS switching decision can result in deactivating nearby small cells and associating uplink mobile users to a faraway macro BS. Consequently, uplink mobile users may suffer from QoS degradation due to the longer transmission distance. Hence, while saving energy for the network operators and satisfying the downlink QoS, the uplink QoS could be violated. In this paper, we propose a balanced dynamic planning approach that accounts for QoS requirements both in the uplink and downlink to specify the BS switching decision. The switching decision is formulated as a two-Timescale average reward Markov decision process with finite horizon. Due to computational complexity, sub-optimal algorithms are proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the trade-off between energy saving and QoS guarantee.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7728064
Pages (from-to)3299-3312
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016



  • base station switching
  • dynamic planning
  • Energy efficient communications
  • green communications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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