Application of graphitic bio-carbon using two-level factorial design for microwave-assisted carbonization

Zaira Z. Chowdhury, Wageeh A. Yehye, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Mohammed Abdul Hakim Al Saadi, Muataz Atieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A novel intermittent microwave-assisted carbonization method was developed to prepare bio-char (BWSC) from Durian wood sawdust (BWS). The BWS was further activated using a base-catalytic approach to produce a graphitic form of bio-carbon (BWSAC). A three factor, two-level central composite (CCD) experimental design was used to maximize Pb(II) ion removal from aqueous solution using BWSAC. Three independent variables (initial pH of solution (pH0) ranging from 2 to 8, initial metal ion concentration of Pb(II) cations (C0) ranging from 50 to 100 mg/L, and contact time (Ct) ranging from 10 to 300 min) were consecutively coded as x1, x2, and x3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1) of the design matrix. The experimental conditions in terms of actual factors were determined to be x1 (pH0) = 5.86, x2 (C0) = 57.77 mg/L, and x3 (temperature) = 53.85 °C, and the resultant Pb(II) ion removal efficiency (y1) obtained was 92.73%, with a model desirability of 0.974. The change in physiochemical properties after carbonization as well as activation was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area analysis (BET), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Ultimate analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3637-3659
Number of pages23
JournalBioResources
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

Fingerprint

Carbonization
Carbon
Microwaves
Ions
Sawdust
ion
carbon
Charge coupled devices
Design of experiments
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Metal ions
Thermogravimetric analysis
Cations
Wood
Positive ions
Chemical activation
FTIR spectroscopy
X ray diffraction
experimental design
Scanning electron microscopy

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Central composite design
  • Graphitic carbon
  • Response surface methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal

Cite this

Application of graphitic bio-carbon using two-level factorial design for microwave-assisted carbonization. / Chowdhury, Zaira Z.; Yehye, Wageeh A.; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Al Saadi, Mohammed Abdul Hakim; Atieh, Muataz.

In: BioResources, Vol. 11, No. 2, 01.05.2016, p. 3637-3659.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chowdhury, Zaira Z. ; Yehye, Wageeh A. ; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd ; Al Saadi, Mohammed Abdul Hakim ; Atieh, Muataz. / Application of graphitic bio-carbon using two-level factorial design for microwave-assisted carbonization. In: BioResources. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 2. pp. 3637-3659.
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