Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is a potent chemoattractant for antigen-specific T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that Adenovirus- (Ad-) transduced dendritic cells (DCs) overexpressing MDC would enhance the T cell-mediated humoral immune response specific for antigens presented by the DC. We challenged two strains of mice with lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection 3 weeks after immunization with AdMDC-modified DCs pulsed with heat-killed P. aeruginosa. MDC-expressing DCs specifically attracted T lymphocytes and preserved typical DC surface phenotypes without growth factors in vitro. Mice immunized with AdMDC/Pseudomonas/DCs developed high levels of serum anti-Pseudomonas Ab's and were protected from a lethal respiratory challenge with Pseudomonas. The in vivo protective immunity required CD4+ T cells, B cells, and IL-4, but not CD8+ T cells and IL-12. AdMD C/DCs pulsed with Pseudomonas yielded significant but not absolute cross-protection against different strains of P. aeruginosa. Pseudomonas-pulsed AdMD C/DCs protected mice from Pseudomonas but not Escherichia coli and vice versa; this microbe-specific protection correlated with microbe-specific induction of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IL-4 secretion. Based on these observations, AdMDC-modified DCs pulsed with a killed bacteria may be a useful approach to vaccination against infectious disorders.
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