An online handwriting recognition system for Turkish

Esra Vural, Hakan Erdogan, Kemal Oflazer, Berrin Yanikoglu

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article


Despite recent developments in Tablet PC technology, there has not been any applications for recognizing hand-writings in Turkish. In this paper, we present an online handwritten text recognition system for Turkish, developed using the Tablet PC interface. However, even though the system is developed for Turkish, the addressed issues are common to online handwriting recognition systems in general. Several dynamic features are extracted from the handwriting data for each recorded point and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are used to train letter and word models. We experimented with using various features and HMM model topologies, and report on the effects of these experiments. We started with first and second derivatives of the x and y coordinates and relative change in the pen pressure as initial features. We found that using two more additional features, that is, number of neighboring points and relative heights of each point with respect to the base-line improve the recognition rate. In addition, extracting features within strokes and using a skipping state topology improve the system performance as well. The improved system performance is 94% in recognizing handwritten words from a 1000-word lexicon.

Original languageEnglish
Article number07
Pages (from-to)56-65
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2005
EventProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Document Recognition and Retrieval XII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: 19 Jan 200520 Jan 2005



  • Handwriting
  • HMM
  • Online
  • Recognition
  • Turkish

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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