An equilibrium model for chloride removal from recycled cooling water using the ultra-high lime with aluminum process

Ahmed Abdel-Wahab, Bill Batchelor, Jon Schwantes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)


Removal of chloride from recycled cooling water is needed to reduce corrosion and prolong equipment life. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the ultra-high lime with aluminum (UHLA) process has the ability to achieve high chloride removal efficiency from recycled cooling water. In an effort to further understand the behavior of chloride in the UHLA process, a fundamental model of the chemical processes was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this equilibrium model and present values for solubility products of precipitated solids that have not been investigated previously. The model was based on PHREEQC and a new program called INVRS K was integrated with PHREEQC to calculate values of unknown or poorly defined equilibrium or kinetic constants using a Gauss-Newton nonlinear regression routine. Model predictions indicated that the results could be best described by assuming the formation of a solid solution of calcium chloroaluminate (Ca4Al2Cl 2OH12), tricalcium hydroxyaluminate (Ca3Al 2OH12), and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate (Ca 4Al2OH14).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3059-3065
Number of pages7
JournalWater Environment Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005



  • AFm
  • Aluminum
  • Calcium chloroaluminate
  • Chloride
  • Cooling water
  • Corrosion
  • Equilibrium model
  • Lime
  • Water recycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Ecological Modelling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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