Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

Santosh K. Yadav, Rakesh K. Gupta, Ravindra K. Garg, Vimala Venkatesh, Pradeep K. Gupta, Alok K. Singh, Sheema Hashem, Asma AL Sulati, Deepak Kaura, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Mohammad Haris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-322
Number of pages7
JournalNeuroImage: Clinical
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Keywords

  • Cortical thickness
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neurocognitive functions
  • Structural connectivity
  • Subcortical volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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