Age-Upon-Decisions Minimizing Scheduling in Internet of Things: To Be Random or to Be Deterministic?

Yunquan Dong, Zhengchuan Chen, Shanyun Liu, Pingyi Fan, Khaled Ben Letaief

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this article, we consider an Internet of Things (IoT) system in which a sensor delivers updates to a monitor with exponential service time and first-come-first-served (FCFS) discipline. We investigate the freshness of the received updates and propose a new metric termed as age upon decisions (AuD), which is defined as the time elapsed from the generation of each update to the epoch it is used to make decisions (e.g., estimations, inferences, and controls). Within this framework, we aim at improving the freshness of updates at decision epochs by scheduling the update arrival process and the decision-making process. The theoretical results show that: 1) when the decisions are made according to a Poisson process, the average AuD is independent of decision rate and will be minimized if the arrival process is periodic (i.e., deterministic); 2) when both the decision process and the arrival process are periodic, the average AuD is larger, but decreases with decision rate to, the average AuD of the corresponding system with the Poisson decisions (i.e., random); and 3) when both the decision process and the arrival process are periodic, the average AuD can be further decreased by optimally controlling the offset between the two processes. For practical IoT systems, therefore, it is suggested to employ periodic arrival processes and random decision processes. Nevertheless, making the periodical updates and decisions with properly controlled offset is also a promising solution, if the timing information of the two processes can be accessed by the monitor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8887253
Pages (from-to)1081-1097
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020



  • Age of information (AoI)
  • age upon decisions (AuD)
  • decision scheduling
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • update-and-decide systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications

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