Advanced reduction processes: A new class of treatment processes

Bhanu Prakash Vellanki, Bill Batchelor, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-271
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Engineering Science
Volume30
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

perchlorate
Nitrates
Sulfites
Impurities
Reducing Agents
sulfite
pollutant
nitrate
perfluorooctanoic acid
Chemical activation
Reducing agents
Dithionite
Mercury vapor lamps
Degradation
kinetics
degradation
Kinetics
experiment
Experiments
Sulfides

Keywords

  • nitrate
  • oxidized contaminant
  • perchlorate
  • reducing radicals, reduction
  • sulfite
  • ultraviolet light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Advanced reduction processes : A new class of treatment processes. / Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed.

In: Environmental Engineering Science, Vol. 30, No. 5, 01.05.2013, p. 264-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash ; Batchelor, Bill ; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed. / Advanced reduction processes : A new class of treatment processes. In: Environmental Engineering Science. 2013 ; Vol. 30, No. 5. pp. 264-271.
@article{a03111584de8459dbb1323a392beca6d,
title = "Advanced reduction processes: A new class of treatment processes",
abstract = "A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP.",
keywords = "nitrate, oxidized contaminant, perchlorate, reducing radicals, reduction, sulfite, ultraviolet light",
author = "Vellanki, {Bhanu Prakash} and Bill Batchelor and Ahmed Abdel-Wahab",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1089/ees.2012.0273",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "264--271",
journal = "Environmental Engineering Science",
issn = "1092-8758",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Advanced reduction processes

T2 - A new class of treatment processes

AU - Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash

AU - Batchelor, Bill

AU - Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

PY - 2013/5/1

Y1 - 2013/5/1

N2 - A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP.

AB - A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP.

KW - nitrate

KW - oxidized contaminant

KW - perchlorate

KW - reducing radicals, reduction

KW - sulfite

KW - ultraviolet light

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877844284&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84877844284&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/ees.2012.0273

DO - 10.1089/ees.2012.0273

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84877844284

VL - 30

SP - 264

EP - 271

JO - Environmental Engineering Science

JF - Environmental Engineering Science

SN - 1092-8758

IS - 5

ER -