A digital pixel sensor array with programmable dynamic range

Alistair Kitchen, Amine Bermak, Abdesselam Bouzerdoum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

89 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a digital pixel sensor (DPS) array employing a time domain analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC) technique featuring adaptive dynamic range and programmable pixel response. The digital pixel comprises a photodiode, a voltage comparator, and an 8-bit static memory. The conversion characteristics of the ADC are determined by an array-based digital control circuit, which linearizes the pixel response, and sets the conversion range. The ADC response is adapted to different lighting conditions by setting a single clock frequency. Dynamic range compression was also experimentally demonstrated. This clearly shows the potential of the proposed technique in overcoming the limited dynamic range typically imposed by the number of bits in a DPS. A 64 × 64 pixel array prototype was manufactured in a 0.35-μm, five-metal, single poly, CMOS process. Measurement results indicate a 100 dB dynamic ran a 41-s mean dark time and an average current of 1.6 μA per DPS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2591-2601
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005



  • CMOS imager
  • Digital pixel sensor (DPS)
  • Self-resetting asynchronous pixel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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