A CMOS imager with PFM/PWM based analog-to-digital converter

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16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An On-pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter based on both FPM and PWM schemes is reported. The proposed architecture uses a limited number of transistors that can be implemented in a small silicon area resulting in a 23% fill-factor. The digital sensor can be externally configured in order to operate under either the PFM or PWM scheme. At high-light intensities, the PFM scheme is replaced by the PWM scheme which proves to be much more efficient in terms of power consumption and clock frequency requirements. An in-built light adaptation mechanism has also been implemented which allows the sensor to better adapt to low-light intensity or to adjust the sensor saturation level. As a consequence, the sensor features a programmable dynamic range. Image lag is reduced in both schemes since a reset of the photodetector is performed after the conversion period. The pixel based ADC has been designed and fabricated using CMOS 0.25μm technology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
Volume4
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Digital to analog conversion
Image sensors
Pulse width modulation
Sensors
Pixels
High intensity light
Silicon
Photodetectors
Clocks
Transistors
Electric power utilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Cite this

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abstract = "An On-pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter based on both FPM and PWM schemes is reported. The proposed architecture uses a limited number of transistors that can be implemented in a small silicon area resulting in a 23{\%} fill-factor. The digital sensor can be externally configured in order to operate under either the PFM or PWM scheme. At high-light intensities, the PFM scheme is replaced by the PWM scheme which proves to be much more efficient in terms of power consumption and clock frequency requirements. An in-built light adaptation mechanism has also been implemented which allows the sensor to better adapt to low-light intensity or to adjust the sensor saturation level. As a consequence, the sensor features a programmable dynamic range. Image lag is reduced in both schemes since a reset of the photodetector is performed after the conversion period. The pixel based ADC has been designed and fabricated using CMOS 0.25μm technology.",
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